1/2018

1/2018 - ATLANTIS

The first issue of Atlantis in 2018 (spring), dedicates the Dossier to the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 with all the implications that it has entrenched in relations between European States. In the next issues we will continue with other events with the history that occurred in the years ending in eight.
In this issue, the column on Mondo and Diseases with the Asperger Syndrome continues.
The country Focus, signed by Domenico Letizia, is dedicated to Israel.
Among the Italian Excellencies in and for the World, space at the Costa degli Aranci and the Riviera Borgo degli Angeli Consortium in the province of Catanzaro (Calabria), the creativity of the architect Magda Piscicelli with her female fashion brand Luce Majori, Enrico Monti and his tailor made in Venice, Agnese Lunardelli and the fine wood furniture of the family business and, lasta but not least, the formidable medical-health offer of the Nursing Home Giovanni XXIII of Monastier di Treviso.

Editorial

Editorial - ATLANTIS

 

A Forty eight happened!

 

Ways of saying often have a historical origin: even today we say “a forty-eight happened” to indicate a situation of sudden chaos, of general tumult, of unexpected ruckus. It is the same Mike Rapport, in the first page of his book 1848. The year of the Revolution, to remember the origin of this phrase: it was in fact the revolutionary events that intertwined in 1848 to crystallize in the mentioned image, to become the ‘archetype - also verbal - of a confusing but at the same time decisive event. In that year, in fact, “a violent revolutionary storm hit Europe”. But, often, the years ending with the eight figure were anything but trivial. Without going too far back in time, here is the entry into force of the Constitution of the United States of America in 1788; the Treaty of Berlin which sanctioned the agreements between the Great Powers after the Russo-Turkish war in 1878; the end of the Second World War in 1918; the entry into force of the Italian Constitution in 1948. However, for obvious reasons of space (the four numbers of 2018), the annual topics of the dossiers were chosen (in chronological order) in this way: 1648 Peace of Westphalia; 1848 the revolutionary Motions in Europe; 1968 the Student Motions of 1968 (but also the Prague Spring) and the World Economic Crisis that exploded in 2008.

Respecting the chronological order, therefore, the first issue of the year of Atlantis dedicates the dossier to the so-called Peace of Westphalia. The Peace of Westphalia forever marks the end of feudalism and the beginning of that rich historical period called “monarchical absolutism” that will lead to vast social reforms spread almost everywhere in Europe and which will call the classes previously excluded to direct part of political life and economic, it will no longer be enough to be noble by birth to govern the public good but it will have to be demonstrated to the monarch (who fully embodies the state) to be capable of it. In all likelihood modern Europe is born precisely from the Peace of Westphalia, because the geography of our continent changes and not little compared to past centuries and begins to take shape the development that we all know today. For the first time, monarchies, moderate monarchies and republics (even if oligarchic) ​​are ideally gathered around a common table, ideally the first represented by France and the latter by Sweden without anyone having special privileges in the discussions and proposals. Therefore, the creation of the new “system of European States” essentially involves solutions concerning religion, the reorganization of the imperial territories and the birth of new nations from its ashes. We must not think about modern conventions with presidencies, agendas, votes and the presentation of final documents, the scope is certainly more modest, but it is the first real step to arrive at the “Balance of Power” policy, the balance of power among the European nations that will be the English warhorse in the subsequent Peace of Utrecht of 1714. The ‘48 of the nineteenth century is the set of revolutionary movements that broke out in Europe between January 1848 and the spring of 1849. The wave revolutionary ended with the defeat of the progressive forces, within which the democratic and socialist positions were designed to undermine the liberal approach until then hegemonic. Laying the foundations for the unresolved problems that are evident also in today’s Europe. The youth protest of 1968 has its starting point in France but manifests itself in different forms and articulated throughout the world (not just Western): in the United States the protesters’ descent into the streets was accompanied by the Vietnam War crisis, China Mao Tze Dong completed the cultural revolution (in reality the repression of the intellectual class condemned to the hard work in the fields of recovery to socialism, on 21 August 1968 the Russian tanks entered Prague, breaking the reformist dream of the so-called Prague Spring, and in fact, putting an end to the construction of the Socialist International led by Moscow If the non-alignments of Tito had already given a strong blow to the Soviet leadership, now the credibility of Stalin’s successors (from Khrushchov to Brezhnev) had also fallen to a minimum for the communist parties of the West (from France and from Italy it matures the idea of ​​a sort of socialist reformism of Eurocommunism) while in It alia, the history of the sixty-eight remained a monopoly of the same sixty-eight, whose vulgate is only positive: anti-class protest, anti-conformist, anti-authoritarian. In reality, the Marxist Matrix of the movement has done nothing but reproduce an anti-meritocratic vision of Italian society, favoring a process of poor production of national elites still evident today. Finally, the Crisis of 2008 is perhaps still too close temporally (despite the past 10 years) to be analyzed with clarity. However, it is worth addressing the issue because, since it is not a passing phenomenon but a situation that has produced and will produce permanent effects in the economy and in Western society, a chapter of history books from the 21st will probably mark the precedents mentioned. Century. Suffice it to quote the book Il Nostro Futuro by Alec Ross. It is easy to forget how much the world has changed in the last decades. And it is even easier to not think about how much the world will change in the coming years, because often the transformation is unpredictable, unstoppable and risky. Alec Ross, adviser to the Obama administration for Innovation and a professor at Columbia University (but also studied in Bologna), has worked for years on the frontier of change, traveling all over the world. Ross has tackled all the hottest topics of innovation - from genetic research to cybersecurity to the Big Data revolution - highlighting its impact on our choices. 

 

 

Actuality: MALI

Actuality: MALI - ATLANTIS

MALI, a country of hope?

 

Francesco Ippoliti 

Riccardo Zorzi

 

 

The MALI, despite a significant deployment of international security forces, continues to be an insecure country with a strong presence of Islamic extremism.

After various vicissitudes that have led to a precarious political stability, now the objectives are to stabilize the area, neutralize the presence of Islamic terrorists and try to start a project of economic development with the support of the UN agencies, of the Europe and the USA.

Europe is watching the country’s growth process closely, and the President of the EU Parliament, Antonio Tajani, has also declared this. Mali has been defined as a privileged partner, a priority for Strasbourg, an important country for European development and security policy.

Mali is a country that suffers from a serious destabilization of the jihadist matrix, which finds its roots in the policy of abandonment of areas to the north of the country, left to the raids of the local tribes. The civil war led the Tuareg ethnic group of the Azawad National Liberation Movement to ally with the fundamentalist fractions linked to Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb - AQIM for the independence of the region from the central government and imposing sharia.

In particular, Al-Mourabitoun (the sentinel) led by Mokhtar Belmokhtar and Adnan Abu Waleed al-Sahrawi was the terrorist group that most acted with cruelty and that in 2015 it was renamed Al Qaeda in West Africa, showing expansionary ambitions throughout the region.

Only last year there were over 250 attacks in the country with numerous victims and cruel atrocities.

Driven by a situation of catastrophic situation that was about to deliver the country in the hands of Al Qaeda, the United Nations, Europe, primarily with France, and the US began to take a political and military interest in Mali.

The main actors present in Mali as security forces are:

- MINUSMA;

- EUTM - Mali;

- EUCAP Sahel;

- Barkhane operation;

- G5 Sahel Force.

 

MINUSMA (Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali)

The UN peacekeeping mission is quite substantial. Approved for a maximum force of 16,500 men, equipped with light armament, currently consists of about 11,000 soldiers, 2,000 police officers and 1,200 civilians. The main mandate is to support the parties involved in the internal conflict of Mali, to “gradually achieve the resurgence of state authority”. It has been joined by other agencies of the UN to restore the minimum living conditions.

 

EUTM - Mali

It is the European mission to help the country. The primary mission is to increase the capabilities and training of the Malian security forces. The Command is located in Bamako with a staff of about 150 men while the training center with about 400 men is located in Koulikoro.

There are a further 5 decentralized formations called CMATT (Combined Mobile Advisory & Training Team) which are located: 2 in Segou, 1 in Kati, 1 in Gao and 1 in Sikasso.

 

EUCAP Sahel

It is the civil mission of the European Union for an interrelationship between the military forces deployed in the country and the government political structure. The main task is to help the country to guarantee the democratic and constitutional order. Team of political advisers work at ministerial level to increase the human resources system.

 

Barkhane operation

It is the operation of the French Armed Forces for military activities in support of the Mali government against terrorist groups and for supporting the population. With a force of about 4,000 heavily armed men, they have a mandate other than that of MINUSMA, a more operational and combat task rather than peacekeeping. Barkhane is the natural sequel to Operation Serval that led to the reconquest of the territories acquired by the Islamists in 2012/2013.

 

G5 Sahel Force

It is the deployment authorized by the United Nations with the support of the African Union of a security force composed of 5 states, Mali, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mauritania and Niger under the guidance of French experts. Founded in February 2014, it was mandated to combat the threat of terrorism throughout the Sahel territory, a transnational task and to counter illegal trafficking in the area, the primary source of terrorist financing.

Once fully operational, it will count on a force of about 5,000 men with average equipment. The main source of funding is from the US, which also provides adequate intelligence and recce support through the drones deployed in the air bases of Agaddez in Niger and Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso.

 

The situation.

Despite the peace agreements and the strong presence of international civilian and military missions, progress in peace and stabilization remain far from set goals and expectations. One of the main problems is the exclusion from the peace agreements of some armed groups that still continue to operate in the country.

The peace process continues to delay and the perception of the population and governmental opposition is that of inefficient procedures to finalize the agreements.

Ethnic tensions remain high with small local conflicts and various episodes of racism, especially among the peoples of the north and south of the country.

In this fragile situation, in March 2017 the four major Islamic terrorist organizations joined together to create JNIM Jama’a Nusrat ul-Islam wal Muslim (Al Qaeda support group for Islam and Muslims). Since its creation, JNIM has given priority to attacks on the bases of all the forces present, in particular those of the UN and the abduction of foreign citizens. In addition, numerous centers of worship in the central part of the country have been hit.

JNIM did not concentrate its actions in particular areas but acted mainly in central and southern Mali with numerous points towards the north. So, from an analysis of events, we can deduce two aspects, one seems that this terrorist formation can move freely in the country, the other that the groups that make up JNIM are located throughout the nation and not concentrated in particular ethnic groups, therefore more difficult to identify.

These actions have prompted security forces to suddenly risk themselves in different areas of Mali, preferring the central part, in order to be able to quickly intervene throughout the country and try to ensure an adequate security framework.

If in the main urban centers there is a minimum of perceived safety, in rural areas this feeling is minimally felt with a spirit of resignation and acceptance of events.

 

The context remains complex.

Mali must first solve the internal problem given by the emptiness of government power, must rebuild and reform the security forces, giving them greater operational capabilities and adequate technological support. From what it transpires, it seems that military personnel lack the motivation to try to stabilize the country and that they rely solely on international support, forced to invest in Mali if they do not want to drop this area in the hands of organized groups of JNIM.

The international forces present have the ability to be able to professionally train local forces, while they have some limitations in the control of the territory. Only the Operation Bakhane can be decisive for the neutralization of the threats present, but this could require a long time and a further investment of resources by France, with the significant US contribution. 

 

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1/2018

 
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