3/2018

3/2018 - ATLANTIS

The THIRD Atlantis number of 2018 (AUTUMN), dedicates the Dossier to the 1948 Charter of Human Rights with all the legal implications it entailed. In the next issue, the last appointment with what has historically been relevant in the years ending in eight.
In this issue, the column on Mondo and Diseases with Pertussis continues.
The country Focus, signed by Domenico Letizia, is dedicated to Malta.
Among the Italian Excellencies in and for the World, space on the Venetian coast with Cortina d'Ampezzo and a company that is both a hope and a splendid reality for the Venetian and Italian econimia the TOWER SPA that celebrated 30 years of activities.
The permanent collaboration with the headline Report and Defense directed by colleague Luca Tatarelli also continues in this issue. The themes of international relations, foreign trade, human rights and geopolitics will add important themes in international affairs such as defense and security.

Editorial

Editorial - ATLANTIS

History is made by us

by Carlo Mazzanti

We are history. That is, history is made of our choices, our individual responsibilities, our rigor towards the obligation to obey a universal morality (we know very well that it exists but sometimes we avoid it with an excuse or another). Our sensitivity to the defense of human rights has faded to disappear, swallowed up by rules and hypocrisies and cynicism. We must keep well or badly an Erdogan, paid to keep refugees from Syria. Ahmet Altan, in the book “I will not see the world again” has made a clear complaint to the public Western opinion The friend and colleague Marta Ottaviani wrote an excellent book “The Reis, as Erdogan has changed Turkey” that we reviewed on Atlantis, but it does not seem that the result is an outcry against the illiberal regime of the reis. Thousands of civil servants in Turkey were fired under the guise of their alleged participation in the failed coup of 2016. However, they pretend nothing happened. The Regeni case is there to show that maintaining good relations with Cairo comes before the truth: Egypt, moreover, guarantees an eye on the investments of Italian Eni. The Syrian gentleman Assad, supported by Putin, is not the “lesser evil” to be left alone in the war against ISIS? And should we be moved by the tragic fate of the Kurdish people, as told by Lorenzo Cremonesi? The fact is that we are becoming (or returning) insensitive to the massacre of human rights, to the uncontested attack of ferocious dictatorships with which we want to entertain solid and “quiet” relationships of mutual non-interference. The times of “humanitarian interference”? Archived. International institutions are screwed up in the most pathetic impotence. The United Nations, hostage of satraps and tyrants, put exponents of human rights regimes in their commissions for human rights to systematic slaughter. We are impressed by the images of torture that take place in the Libyan detention centers of migrants, but the UN does nothing because that obscenity no longer takes place and we are interested only in keeping away from our shores, those unwanted guests. The head of European foreign affairs, Federica Mogherini, anti-Israel seems to be fascinated by the Iranian theocracy, where women, just as they do in Saudi Arabia, are persecuted and condemned to an unacceptable condition. In Iraq, women who dare to send their free images on Instagram are threatened if not murdered. Of the fate of the Rohingya, the Muslim population massacred by the army of Aung San Suu Kyi, incredibly awarded by the most undeserved Nobel Peace Prize, do you remember anyone? At least, Angela Merkel has challenged the wrath of Beijing by shaking hands with the Dalai Lama, representative of a people, like the Tibetan, still oppressed. Is the universal value of human rights divided by the government agenda? Trampled human rights do not know geography. They are repeated identically also in other contexts, but our indifference is all that remains concrete. And it’s not that by changing perspective and looking at home, things get better. If someone shows up to the electoral body proposing the overcoming of representative democracy, the overcoming of the current rule of law, does not hide to be allied with the party led by the president of a foreign state who dreams of breaking up Europe to the point of being arrived to finance some anti-Europeanist parties and movements (as proven in France), what do you do? Do you remain at the mercy of torpor? Wake Up. History is made by us.

 

 

Geopolitics as an academic discipline

Geopolitics as an academic discipline - ATLANTIS

Domenico Letizia

For decades we have been accustomed to a certain way of seeing the world, favoring economics as a science. Now that the globalization of the economy is, apparently, acquired, one is forced to note that the attitude of states can be guided by other factors, beyond the search for profit or the conquest of fertile lands. Whatever its territorial extent and the complexity of geographical data, a geopolitical situation is defined through the rivalries of power of greater or lesser moment, and through relationships between forces that occupy different parts of the territory in question. The rivalries of power are above all those between states, large and small, which disputes the possession or control of certain territories. It is a question of identifying the precise location and the reasons that each invokes to justify the conflict, often in relation to the resources, appropriation of a mining deposit or of an undersea area not yet explored, but sometimes also to causes of more difficult discernment, and it is nevertheless necessary to try to define. Rivalries of power, official and unofficial, are also developed within many states whose peoples, more or less minority, claim their autonomy or independence. Then emerge the problems of immigration, which in many countries have become geopolitical. Finally, within the same nation, there are geopolitical rivalries between the main political parties, which seek to extend their influence in that region or in this agglomeration, and to conquer or preserve electoral constituencies. To show the distribution of these different forces, even in relatively small spaces, we need clear and suggestive maps, and in particular historical maps, which allow us to understand the evolution of the situation through the successive layout of the borders, as well as to appreciate " acquired rights "on a given territory, which various States formulate with various formulations. Furthermore, let us not forget the contemporary dispute between the jurisprudence in relation to national sovereignty, the raison d'etat, the rule of law and respect for international conventions on democracy and human rights. Geopolitics, we can summarize, remains the most effective guide to understand reality and transnational contemporary phenomena. Who decided to focus on this factor, in a multidisciplinary perspective, making the geopolitical subject of teaching, study, research and study is the LUMSA University. Once again this year, the Master's Degree Course "The Mediterranean and the Middle East today: problems and perspectives", conceived and directed by Franz Martinelli and Professor Gianpaolo Malgeri, which includes ambassadors, was held at the University. personalities of diplomacy and non-governmental organizations, think tank analysts, university professors and human rights experts. The birth of the Arab countries, the relevance of the Mediterranean, the geopolitics of the conflicts in the Caucasus and the Arab world, the foundations and development of Islam in the Mediterranean area, Christianity and Islamism in the Middle East and in North Africa and many others topics were at the center of the lessons. In my recent interview with the director and creator of the course, Franz Martinelli, we have been able to deepen the importance of such work. Martinelli reiterated: "The idea was born from the consideration that the Mediterranean area appears increasingly decisive for the national interest and the transformations that today cross this wide geo-political and geo-economic space require a new and interdisciplinary formation . And this is why an agreement was made between "Gi & Me Association" and Lumsa, thanks to the contribution of the Third Pillar - International Phonation, to launch a specialization course entitled "Mediterranean and Middle East today: problems and perspectives", which is now in its second edition. The aim of the course is to train experts in economic, juridical, political and cultural relations between the Mediterranean and Middle East countries and this because the Mediterranean area continues to be more and more decisive for the national interest, from the point of view of economic development, security, energy supply and control of migration flows. A new and interdisciplinary training must provide the basic historical and cultural tools and the technical skills necessary to meet the needs of a market, a form of civilization, a rapidly changing international relations system. The course is aimed at first or second level graduates and also not, without age limits, both Italian and foreign. The course took place in July and September, at the Rome headquarters of Lumsa University and consisted of 60 hours of lessons that were taught by university professors, experts and professionals working in national and international organizations and managers of the world of institutions and international cooperation ". Analyzing the most important contemporary phenomena, particular attention has been dedicated to terrorism from a transnational and global point of view. Speaker of one of the first lessons, Gianfranco Varvesi, former ambassador in Vienna at the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, who dealt with contemporary communication in relation to terrorist phenomena. Social media, new communication tools and videos uploaded on the net are powerful tools for the propaganda of terrorism. Terrorism is an act of violence. Current events see the modern phenomena of "democracy" and "communication" linking to terrorism and its analysis. On the other hand: "is it now clear that while hitting a specific area, global information is still involved and if while the global approach is justified by reason, can a proximity approach be considered ethical?". The reality of the facts leads to not consider important acts of terrorism that occur too far from home and our culture and we tend to personalize the tragedy by recognizing it only through the decryption of acts perpetrated towards our fellow men for habits and customs. All this makes us reflect how now even the information has raised the bar of the "message" and to be heard as long as possible and resorts to actions much closer to communication. It is essential to capture the emotion of the moment, but this attitude leads to the risk of yielding to the propaganda of terrorism, relegating information to the background. For example, "compared to the British events in Manchester, another novelty marked a paradigm shift with respect to the condemnation of terrorist actions by moderate Muslims, always in the wake of the emotionality that led public opinion to stand up for or against the commercial of the telephone company Kwait Zain, more than 3 million views for its launch coincided on the day of the launch of Ramadan ", has recently reiterated Letizia Di Tommaso, of the Italian Public Relations Federation. In June 2018, UNESCO considered it necessary to write and publish a manual for journalists: "Terrorism and the Media", 110 pages on how to cover acts of terrorism. It was therefore necessary, given the historical moment, to write in black and white some guidelines of behavior for the media that tell the contemporary story often linked to great acts of terrorism. Within the publication a responsible behavior is recommended with respect to the approach to the news: maintain a sense of proportion, avoid a moralistic ideological approach that tends to blur reality, avoid giving too much visibility to terrorists, respect the dignity of the victims and above all of children, finding a balance between the duty of information and privacy, correcting errors immediately and visibly, publishing essential images without resorting to sensationalism. The Ambassador deepened other geopolitical and historical issues such as the form of "political terrorism" adopted by Mu'ammar Gheddafi and the funding to members of the Irish Republican Army, the clandestine military organization, with the name of Irish Volunteers, in the first decade of the twentieth century to free Ireland from the English domination. Priority of the Course remains the analysis and understanding of the Islamic world. As well described by Professor Stefany Estephan, the culture of a school of thought consists of its principles, its beliefs and the actions of its founding members. Therefore, if one wanted to study a particular school of thought, it is necessary to refer to what its founders say. A contemporary phenomenon that is the object of numerous investigations is the relationship between Islam and the role of women. From the point of view of personal relationships the state of subordination of the Muslim woman never ceases during her life, but simply changes the persons to whom she is subject (before marriage to the father, after marriage to her husband). To understand the role of women in Islamic culture, one must study what Islam and its religious leaders affirm in this regard. Almost two hundred verses of the Qur'an deal with the status, role and responsibility of women in the individual, family and social aspects. According to the Qur'an, men and women have equal rights although, for certain issues, these rights may seem dissimilar. In fact, the Divine Law considers that man and woman, even if equally "human" and with the same end in the Creation, have specific and peculiar needs and attitudes. At least fifteen points reveal this balanced approach, demonstrating how Islam leaves no room for sexual discrimination. But the legal reality of the relationship between women, discrimination and gender equality in countless Islamic countries remains very problematic. On the other hand, from a financial point of view, marriage marks a moment of fundamental importance. Before it the woman is deprived of any ability to act (for each of her acts the intervention of the father or of a guardian). After marriage, it acquires, within certain limits, the ability to freely dispose of its assets. Limit equal to the acts of liberality that can not exceed 1/3 of its assets, otherwise the authorization of the husband is required. The only institution in which women have explicit and regulated recognition is that of marriage. In Islamic law marriage is treated as a purchase and sale contract concerning two services: - The physical enjoyment of the woman;

- The payment of the man of a sum (mahr) as payment for the physical enjoyment of the woman.

Also moving from an analysis of what the Quran prescribes in this regard, it is useful to consider how many ethical-moral contents, considered eternal and pronounced in Mecca, tend, on several occasions, to guarantee absolute equality between the sexes, thus determining a clear caesura with respect to pre-Islamic civilizations, in which the female gender was, without a doubt, a condition of absolute inferiority and submission. An aspect of undoubted interest, which marks a difference with previous tradition, is represented by the ability of women in terms of successions. In spite of these considerations, it is undeniable that in Islam, and also in the contemporary world, in certain particular situations, women have not achieved that fullness of rights and faculties that is ensured in Western systems. If the condition of equality between men and women assumes meaningful significance in reference to the Muslim community as a whole, understood as a community of believers, of different nature is the evaluation of the relationships arising from the marriage union. In this narrow context, man enjoys a position of substantial pre-eminence, which is also associated with a significant corrective power in relation to his wife, which finds its main rationale in the synallagma deriving from the legal transaction between spouses. A further element of inequality pertains to the field of criminal proceedings: women have, in fact, a capacity to testify reduced compared to that of man. His testimony is worth half: if for the constitution of a proof valid for procedural purposes the concordance of the statements made by two male witnesses is required, instead they need four to achieve the same result in the case in which there is only available witnesses of female sex. The various Islamic societies were founded, in fact, on such typically patriarchal models, for which it would have been impossible, on the part of the whole community, to recognize a woman authority and social prestige by virtue of the words pronounced by her. The relevance of the phenomenon deserves due attention, avoiding generalization and extremism but having clear the problematic legal status of women in Islamic countries. Thanks to a specific study on gender issues and the state, there is an inevitable understanding of contemporary social relations in relation to national sovereignty, the rule of law and the universality of human rights, elements that become the object of attention especially in Islamic countries where a historicization and complete separation between public institutions and religion is not formally alive and concrete. These considerations and research hypotheses remain essential also for Europe and for the many changes that the continent sees to be actualized in the last years. The relationship between the rule of law and the European continent has been the focus of a lesson by the President of the European Court of Human Rights, Guido Raimondi, in an in-depth debate with Francesco Bonini, Rector of Lumsa, Franz Martinelli, coordinator of the course and Antonio Stango, president of the Italian Federation of Human Rights. A fundamental line of demarcation, referred to by President Raimondi, is that between the rights of citizenship and human rights. While the former are matters of states, which can establish the criteria for granting citizenship, the latter - as evidenced by the Universal Declaration of 1948 - belong to all human beings as such, regardless of their citizenship or also by the absence of citizenship - in the case of stateless persons. So not only every state, but also the competent institutions of the international community have the task of protecting them. In this context, the European Court of Human Rights, whose rulings on the matter must be applied by all States that adhere to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (drawn up by the Council of Europe and signed in Rome in 1950) has a decisive role. When a government (such as the current Italian, in particular, or those of Hungary and Poland or many others) takes measures that damage the guarantees provided by the Convention, the Court can intervene, both with judgments following individual memories (after that all levels of internal judgments of a country have been experienced), and with "pilot" rulings that do not limit themselves to order compensation to those who have been damaged by an unjust judicial outcome but ask governments to change an administrative practice or a law. Italy - as we know - has often been condemned by the European Court for violations of Article 3 ("No one can be subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment", with reference to the conditions of detention that are often unacceptable and continuously reported by historical nongovernmental organizations such as "Hands off Cain") and article 6 (on the right to a fair trial, with reference to the non-respect of reasonable time limits) of the Convention; but now the problem of migration, or the unprecedented influx of people who do not enjoy citizenship rights but can not be deprived of the fundamental rights inherent in every human being as such (life, health, safety, dignity, family relationships) requires a further commitment by the Court and requires a more delicate interaction between it and the competent national bodies. It is also good - among other things - to bear in mind also Article 4 of the Fourth Additional Protocol to the Convention, which prohibits the collective expulsion of foreigners. As President Raimondi explained, the Italian constitutional principles (in particular, Articles 10 and 11, which provide for the possibility of limiting national sovereignty) and the jurisprudence of the Court of Cassation regulate the adaptation of Italian law to conventional law and therefore the applicability - direct or indirect and according to different mechanisms according to the cases - in the internal order of the same Convention. In the event that a State does not respect the judgments of the European Court, it is up to the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to adopt sanctions. As for the need to protect public order, which is of course a clear obligation on States, it is worth remembering that the essential legal principle in the field of human rights is that the limitations must be established by law, necessary and proportionate, to avoid any arbitrariness. Further postulates of deepening have been highlighted by the publisher and political scientist Antonio Stango in reiterating the internal risks to our continent: "The risks seem to me very concrete: already countries like Hungary and Poland, among those of the European Union, have adopted legislative measures that are rightly the object of strong criticism by human rights organizations: suffice it to mention the recent law which obliges numerous judges of the Constitutional Court to retire early, in the context of a maneuver that I would call on the enslavement of power judiciary to the political one. In the United Kingdom, which - as President Raimondi recalled - is in many respects avant-garde to the observance of the Court's case law, a few years ago with the Cameron government there was even the threat of leaving the Convention to maintain the traditional very extensive restrictions on the right to vote of prisoners, as well as on issues related to the phenomenon of migration. In Italy itself, some members of this government not only criticize the Court politically, but show a very poor understanding of what international law is. However, it is the Russian Federation, and especially Turkey, that now hold very little consideration of fundamental rights. The dismantling of the international security and trust system initiated, among other things, by Putin's Russia, in particular with the annexation of Crimea, and the tens of thousands of arrests, convictions, dismissals and other arbitrary actions in Erdogan's Turkey are extremely disturbing . The situation is much more serious than a few years ago, having in my opinion interrupted the cycle of positive evolution of international law that led, from the eighties of the twentieth century to 2001 (also with the birth of the International Criminal Court) to strengthen the mechanisms of protection of rights of liberty. However, I appreciated the message of relative optimism that President Raimondi has told us about the fact that the Court maintains its capacity for action and seeks to strengthen it, so much so that it remains a beacon of hope that is almost unique in the world. Finally, I find positive the growing interaction between the mechanisms and the jurisprudence of the European Court and other instances of jurisdiction or quasi-international jurisdiction, such as the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the African Court of Human and People's Rights and the Committee for United Nations Human Rights ". The relationship between human rights and state institutions has allowed us to deepen also the legal and political link of many states and the intersection with the religious reality living in such contexts. Among the current topics that geopolitics can not ignore is the detailed analysis of the phenomenon of multiculturalism and interreligious dialogue. Political contemporaneity and the phenomenon of migration again place the problem at the center of the geopolitical attention of many states and inter-religious conflicts continue to be an important problem in relation to the political, religious, social and psycho-cultural sphere. In this complex and fragmented international context, Albania's multicultural current affairs is an interesting model of analysis, not only for the Balkans and regional phenomena within the Balkans, but for the whole of Europe. To deepen the issue of the relationship between the Balkans, Albania and multiculturalism were Khaled Gianluigi Biagioni Gazzoli, Secretary General of the Islamic Union in the West and Yahya Sergio Yahe Pallavicini, Vice President of the Islamic Religious Community. Albania is one of the rare cases of a country where different religions coexist, supporting the integration with the European Union. Muslims, Sunnis and bektashi, Christians, Orthodox and Catholics, boast balanced and peaceful relations. And this, in addition to having value in itself, takes it further if one considers how much religion today is often, involuntarily or not, a factor of decomposition and fracture. Albania, thanks to this plural and dynamic model, is a case to analyze and deepen appreciated and studied. Pope Francis traveled there in 2014, also with the aim of paying tribute to this multicultural fabric. For example, listening to the stories of the elders of Scutari during the month of Ramadan, it becomes known how in that period it was usual for Catholic merchants to close shops, above all, restaurants and bars. A form of mutual respect and brotherhood that has generated a concrete tolerance visible today in the interregional harmony that lives between Catholics and Muslims. Pragmatic political action has contributed to this climate of tolerance. In one of the oldest bazaars in Skadar, one of the largest in the Balkans, the market day was Sunday. But being Sunday, a holy day, full of meaning for Christians and the religious rituals of such believers, the authorities established the opening day of the market on Wednesdays and Saturdays. The tolerance of the Albanians is not only found in the religious sphere, but also in the linguistic and ethnic sphere. During the Great War and the subsequent Second World War, Albania saw the presence on its territory of many armies. The military tales illustrate how the Albanian people treated with respect and assisted the troubled troops of the various groups, giving value, above all, to life and human dignity. A phenomenon that can also be found in recent history, such as the arrival in Tirana of John Paul II, in 1993. In the streets of Tirana and Scutari thousands of faithful poured out, not only Catholics but also Muslims, emptying houses and filling the squares. Although Albania is a small country it has been a religious protagonist thanks to the presence of two popes in a short time: Pope John Paul II in 1993 and Pope Francis in 2014. In both cases, in addition to the heads of state, they were also welcomed by the leader of the Muslim community of Albania, H. Sabri Koçi and H. Skender Bruçaj, respectively, in 1991 and 2014. The communism of Albania fought hard the faiths. Many religious, of all confessions, were persecuted. The places of worship were destroyed or converted into cinemas, agricultural stores or other. Political current events, aware of this historical burden, have decided to separate clearly State and religion, granting freedom and leadership to all the faiths of their own history. We have to do the opposite for what concerns the Middle East and the failed attempts to create and structure a union among the countless Christian communities in the area. A characteristic element of the Christian presence in the Middle East region is undoubtedly its extreme fragmentation. Unity broke with the Christological controversies of the fifth century. Up to 2010 data, native Christians constituted 3% of the total population. Political current affairs, the problems linked to ongoing conflicts, after the so-called "Arab Spring", and the targeted persecutions against Christians, have led to a considerable decrease. Fr Francesco Baronchelli, secretary of the Pontifical Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, reiterated the essential nature of speaking about Christianity, many and varied, in the Middle East and according to this view the problematic of the faithful is to be analyzed. Albania is one of the rare cases of a country where different religions coexist, supporting the integration with the European Union. Muslims, Sunnis and bektashi, Christians, Orthodox and Catholics, boast balanced and peaceful relations. And this, in addition to having a value in itself, takes it as further, a factor of decomposition and fracture. Albania, thanks to this plural and dynamic model, is a case to analyze and deepen appreciated and studied. Pope Francis traveled there in 2014, also with the aim of paying tribute to this multicultural fabric. For example, listening to the stories of the elders of Scutari during the month of Ramadan, it becomes known as in that period, it was usual for Catholic merchants to close shops, above all, restaurants and bars. This form of mutual respect and brotherhood has been translated into concrete tolerance. Visible today in the interregional harmony that lives between Catholics and Muslims. Pragmatic political action has contributed to this climate of tolerance. In one of the oldest bazaars in Skadar, one of the largest in the Balkans, the market day was Sunday. But being Sunday, full of meaning for Christians and the rituals of such believers, the authorities established the opening day of the market on Wednesdays and Saturdays. The tolerance of the Albanians is not only found in the religious sphere, but also in the linguistic and ethnic sphere. Albania, during the Great War and the Second World War, Albania saw the presence on its territory of many armies. The military tales illustrated how the Albanian people treated with respect and assisted the troubled troops of the various groups, giving value, above all, to life and human dignity. In 1993, this is a phenomenon that can also be found in Tirana of John Paul II. In the streets of Tirana and Scutari, thousands of faithful poured out, not only Catholics but also Muslims, emptying houses and filling the squares. Although Albania is a small country it has been a religious protagonist thanks to the presence of two popes in a short time: Pope John Paul II in 1993 and Pope Francis in 2014. In both cases, in addition to the heads of state, they were also welcomed by the Muslim community of Albania, H. Sabri Koçi and H. Skender Bruçaj, respectively, in 1991 and 2014. The communism of Albania fought hard the faiths. Many religious, of all confessions, were persecuted. The places of worship were destroyed or converted into cinemas, agricultural stores or other. State and religion, freedom and leadership to the integrity of their own history. We are close to the Christian community in the area. A characteristic element of the Christian presence in the Middle East region is undoubtedly its extreme fragmentation. Unity broke with the Christological controversies of the fifth century. Up to 2010 data, native Christians constituted 3% of the total population. Political current affairs, after the so-called "Arab Spring", and the targeted persecutions against Christians. Fr Francesco Baronchelli, secretary of the Pontifical Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, reiterated the essential nature of speaking about Christianity, many and varied, in the Middle East and according to this perspective the problematic of the faithful living must be analyzed. Christians in the Middle East are increasingly aware that the persecutions that affect them today can also be a providential opportunity to move towards the unity of all Christians in the Middle East. The recent proposal by Patriarch Sako to reunite the Chaldean Church, the Assyrian Church of the East and the ancient one of the East, goes in this direction. We could see probable changes for the foreseeable future. Christians are present in all the countries of the Middle East, always as a minority in reference to the global population. Christians in the Middle East present a vast panorama of confessions: the Assyrian Church of the East, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Calcedonese Orthodox Churches, the Catholic Churches, the Anglican Community and many Protestant Christian communities. An ever-present phenomenon, the subject of profound debate within the whole Christian community, is the search for communion between formally separated churches. Ecumenism as a search for meeting, mutual collaboration, support and solidarity against persecution. There are numerous preachers who, especially in the last historical period of common suffering and persecution, perceive the whole Christian community as brothers and sisters of the same family, members of a single community founded around Christ. Among the central questions for the various churches is that of the municipality given for the sacred festivals, particularly for the two main liturgical year, namely Christmas and Easter. As for Easter, a committee of experts, composed of representatives of the Ecumenical Council of Churches and of the Council of the Churches of the Middle East, met in 1997 in Aleppo to study the issue and propose a joint resolution. An agreement could not be reached. In 2013, Pope Tawadros, the Patriarch of Coptic Christians, wrote a letter to Pope Francis on the need to identify a single date for the celebration of Easter for all Christian Churches. There is still no agreement. These aspects are not secondary to the problems faced by Christians, especially with the recent advance of the Islamic State. In recent dramas, visits to the victims by the bishops of the region have multiplied. Visits made regardless of ritual and confessional belonging, often accompanied by practical help with basic necessities. There are many calls for the cessation of hostilities, reconciliation, dialogue, the return of hostages and abductees, appeals commonly presented by the hierarchy of the various Churches. Pope Francis during his meeting with Patriarch Bartholomew in Jerusalem, in May 2014, also touched on the theme of the unity of martyrdom affirming: "When Christians of different confessions find themselves suffering together, the ecumenism of blood is realized, which a particular efficacy not only for the contexts in which it takes place, but, by virtue of the communion of saints, also for the whole Church ". What we need to reiterate is that the continuous persecution of Christians in the Middle East is generating an ever more requested unity on the part of all the Christian churches, starting from the celebration and the establishment of a common feast for all martyrs. of the Churches of the East. From the tragedy could generate an ecumenical spirit of union and communion of Christians. Religious aspects that undoubtedly become fundamental in the geopolitical analysis of the relevance of religious confessions in the Middle East. With this in mind, it is essential to examine the relationship between institutions, religious structures and the anthropological social context. Among the virtuous examples we find the Kingdom of Morocco. Among the most authoritative speakers of the LUMSA Summer School we record the presence of Hassan Abouyob, Ambassador of the Kingdom of Morocco in Italy. The ability of Morocco to handle the phenomenon of Islamic extremism, implementing social reforms in various fields has been exceptional. In Morocco a new family law, issued by King Mohammed VI on October 10, 2003, replaced the old mudawwana approved in 1957, following the independence of the Kingdom. With this reform, Moroccan women have taken a big step forward on the path of equality. Morocco, with the introduction of the new Constitution in 2011, is working to develop a supportive society, guaranteeing security and freedom, equality of opportunities, gender equality and just justice. The Constitution has produced a new legal framework with the redefinition of the powers of the institutions and the implementation of a constitutional, democratic, parliamentary and social monarchy. It is a true Charter of fundamental rights and freedoms, rooted in universal human rights standards. It establishes the prohibition of any discrimination based on sex, skin color, faith, culture, social or regional origin, language or disability. It provides for the primacy of international conventions, regularly ratified by the Kingdom of Morocco, on domestic law and the consolidation of rights and freedoms, visions typical of advanced democratic societies. 

 

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