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4/2017

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In this issue

In this issue - ATLANTIS

 

Speakers and participants 

at the Sports and Culture Convention

Gianluca Forcolin, Vice-President of the Veneto Region

Paola Moro, Mayor of Monastier (Treviso)

Massimo Calvani, President of Sogedin spa and Vice President of Unvs Venice

Gianluca Amadori: President of the Order of Journalists in Veneto

Federico Casarin / Walter De Raffaele (Italian Champions 2016-17 Reyer Basket Venezia) with Luigi Bignotti The Gazzettino

 

Sport and geopolitics

Arduino Paniccia, professor of international relations at the University of Trieste and Gorizia, intelligence editor, foreign diplomatic and terrorist issues for Rai Radio 1 and TG2 Rai. Author of La Pace Armata with General Leonardo Leso and Transform the Future.

Marco Bellinazzo, Journalist of the Sun 24 Hours and Radio 24, sports economics expert wrote The True Master of Football (sold at the outer desk).

Moderator Andrea Mazzanti Condor Atlantis

 

Sports and uniforms

Gianluca Buccilli Captain of the Vessel and the director of master courses at the Institute of Maritime Military Studies in Venice. Graduated at the Livorno Naval Academy, he has held numerous positions including Defense Attaché at the Italian Embassy in Cairo (Egypt) and Commander of the Navy at Maddalena.

Leonardo Leso General of the Carabinieri and the highest degree of career (General of Corps of Arms), was former Military Adviser and Defense Attaché at the Diplomatic Representation to UN New York, veteran of all the major missions carried out by our army in last years. An important presence at the command of the carabinieri in Treviso.

Francesco Ippoliti, General B, Military Attaché at the Italian Embassy in Tehran. He was awarded decoration by the US Government for an action to rescue an American platoon in Afghanistan. He was Vice Commander of the RISTA Brigade.

Moderator Carlo Mazzanti Managing Director Atlantis

 

Sport, religion and human rights

Antonio Stango is an Italian activist and politologist, expert on international human rights, writer and publisher. On 30 October 2016 he was elected President of the Italian League of Human Rights. He is a member of the NGO’s Board of Directors. No one touches Cain, whose mission is the abolition of the death penalty worldwide.

Aldo Aledda, writer and university professor (currently Professor Extraordinary Visiting at Fasta University in Mar del Plata, Argentina). Sport. Political and Social History (Rome, Società Sport Stampa 2002) Award-winning Bancarella Sport Award and Coni’s first literary prize for the 2003 essay; As far as university activity is concerned, she has held teaching assignments at L’Issef, at the Universities of Cagliari, Tor Vergata Roma, Ludes Lugano and Fasta Mar del Plata.

Romano Toppan Graduated in Philosophy and Theology at a prestigious Pontifical University in Rome, graduated in Psychology of Education at the University of Padua and Master in Tourism Economics at Bocconi University in Milan. He was Professor of Human Resources Management and Development at the University of Verona.

Moderator Domenico Letizia The Opinion

 

Stefania Schipani, president of the European research center Rifareleuropa. She graduated in Political Science at the Sapienza of Rome, author of the books Short European Dictionary. She works at the press office and communication at the ISTAT headquarters.

 

Luisella Pavan - Woolfe Director of the Council of Europe Venice Office, graduated from the high school Marco Polo in Venice, graduated in Political Science at the University of Padua. Ambassador.

 

Luigi Del Neri with Fabrizio Cibin RTL 105.2

 

Sports, business and innovation

Vincenzo Marinese new president Confindustria Venezia. Already Vice-President in office for two positions and administrator of the environmental reclamation company (Sirai srl), he was supported by all the representatives of major capital companies also present in Venice - from Eni and its subsidiaries to Enel, Fincantieri, Save, Human, Municipalities of the City of Venice, etc. - to which many small and medium-sized businesses have joined together, starting with those in the footwear sector of the Riviera del Brenta.

Luigino Rossi was already President of Il Gazzettino and Rossi Moda. After completing his presidential mandate at Venice Academy of Fine Arts, he is engaged in an ambitious twinning project of the cities of Venice and New York and of their two New York University and Ca ‘Foscari universities in the field of culture, enterprise and innovation .

Moderator Paolo Navarro Dina Il Gazzettino.

 

Sports and aesthetics

Marzia Pendini, a jewelery maker, is the contingent and artistic director along with her sister Monica (director of administration) of the Salvadori Gioielli brand in Venice.

Joseph Di Pasquale architect and film maker. Graduated in Architectural Design at the Faculty of Architecture of the Politecnico of Milan, since 2009 is a contract professor at the Politecnico di Milano, faculty of architecture and society. In 2001 he studied at the New York Film Academy.

Davide Cerini, architect and owner of Cerini Studio in Milan.

Moderator Filippo Caprioglio architect and designer, vice president Unvs Venezia, teaches architecture faculties in Florence and New York.

 

Sport and health right

Claudio Rigo, Doctor Juventus FC. He is the Sanitary Affairs Manager of the Bianconero Club since 2016. He is a specialist in sports medicine, orthopedics and legal medicine. He has been in the field of football since 1982. During his long career he has experience in Padua, Venice, , Sampdoria, Udinese and Sassuolo.

Angelo Genoa, orthopedic surgeon-in-surgery Surgery graduated in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Trieste in 1984, graduated from the University of Bologna and specializing in Orthopedics at the University of Trieste Studies in Trieste in 1989.

Maurizio D’Aquino, Food Science Manager. He graduated in 1978 in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Padua and subsequently specialized in Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy and in Applied Nutrition and Diet Science at the same University. He worked at the King’s College Hospital of London’s Liver Disease Center and obtained the title of old boye at Gastroenterology at the Le Molinette Hospital in Turin. He has been head of the Hospital for Mental Illness at Mestre Hospital and has been Director of the Department and Primary of the Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology and the Epathology Center of the Giovanni XXIII Monastier Treviso Hospital for 12 years.

Gabriele Geretto Am. Del. House of Care Giovanni XXIII. Already a good footballer with the shirt of Calcio San Donà in the ‘70s, he received the Venetian Sporting Venue of the Year from the National Veteran Union of Venetian Sport at Pedrocchi in Padua in June 2017.

Moderator Luigi Fadalti lawyer. He graduated in law in 1978 at the University of Padua with a thesis on criminal law on ‘privacy’. He has been enrolled in the profession in 1981. He is a member of the sponsors list at higher courts since 1996. He collaborates with the Legal Magazines Archive of the new Criminal Procedure and Criminal Records.

 

Sport and Integration

Paolo Barbisan, president of the Disabled Polisportiva of the Marca Trevigiana.

“Lily Clover” Squad “Lilt of Mestre, winner of the Gold Medal at the Dragon Ball 2017 World Cup.

 

The Giorgio Mazzanti Prize and Hercules Olgeni is a sculpture by master Giorgio Bortoli, born in Venice where he lives and works. His artistic formation originated in the family, his paternal grandfather was in fact a painter and sculptor. As a young man, during his stays in the mountains, he has the opportunity to get to know the artist Augusto Murer from whom he draws inspiration and then he cares about the suggestions of Professor Renato Borsata who will help him enter the live of artistic activity. He began exhibiting at the Fondazione Bevilacqua La Masa in Venice and in 1985 offered his own creation entitled “No to the second crucifixion” to Pope John Paul II, now placed at the Vatican Museums. So it works with projects of macrodimensions with the use of building materials such as steel but with aesthetic research that focuses on the elegance of Murano glass finishes. It is this time the “Venezia - New York” bell tower (2000), steel, glass and fragments of the original bell tower collapsed in 1902, born from the idea of ​​combining the two cities ‘water, united cities, according to the artist, by a great elective affinity. The work is currently at the Science and Technology Park in Venice, waiting to be located in New York City as part of a twinning project of the two cities (and their two universities) in the name of water, art and of culture, but also of the mind, of the ability to undertake and innovate.

 

 

The musical interviews were from the CMP Acoustic Band in Venice (Andrea Corsi to Guitar, Daniele Mattiello to the Mandolin and Guitar and Gianni Poloni to Percussion.

 

 

Appointments in the World

Appointments in the World - ATLANTIS

 

Holocaust remembrance 

27 Jenuary

 

International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female 

Genital Mutilation

6 February

 

International Women’s Day

8 March 2011

 

International Day 

of Happiness

20 March

 

International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

21 March

 

World Poetry Day 

21 March

 

The International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade

25 March

 

World Autism 

Awareness Day

2 April

 

 

 

Dossier: Constitution

Dossier: Constitution - ATLANTIS

 

Constitution

The term constitution assumes a plurality of very different meanings, depending on the historical, political, social, and cultural contexts of reference. Generally, constitution is a solemn written document, containing the discipline of the organization of the supreme state organs and the proclamation of a series of rights and duties of affiliates: this position undoubtedly affects the influence exerted by art.16 of the Declaration of Human and Citizens’ Rights of 1789, according to which “any society where neither the guarantee of rights is guaranteed or the separation of powers is established, has no constitution.” However, a formal and prescriptive notion (cited as a written document and characterized by particular contents) is accompanied by a material and descriptive notion, so it has been said that even the British system, the ancient regime or even the ancient Athens have a constitution. In this sense, therefore, one can speak of a broader notion of c., As equivalent to form of government or political regime: such is meant, for example, references to c. contained in the De Republica di Cicero. On the other hand, always within the broader notion of c., There are scholars who have ended up identifying it with the social contract, at the recuperation of this concept by some of the major exponents of contemporary North American political philosophy (Rawls, Nozick).

An important part of the twentieth century doctrine preferred to talk about c. in substance or material, referring not to the written document, but to its necessary and typical content (the so-called constitutional matter), although the discovery of these contents is controversial: for Hans Kelsen, the constitution would be nothing more than “ fundamental norm “within its pyramidal conception of the legal order; for Carl Schmitt, on the other hand, would be the “fundamental political decision” of a given political regime; For Constantine Mortati, finally, the constitution in the material sense would be identified in the dominant political force in an authoritarian setting or in the political forces exercising the majority political policy in a democratic state.

Additional notions that are particularly suitable to illustrate structural changes affecting today’s constitutional law are to be added to these notions. By virtue of the role assumed by constitutional principles in the jurisprudence of constitutional courts or supreme (Constitutional Court), for example, in adopting interpretative techniques such as constitutional balance and judgment on the reasonableness of laws - there are also those who, in the wake of affirmed since the first half of the nineteenth century by Rossi and, previously, by Pagano and Compagnoni, spoke of c. as of all the general principles of the legal order, or, in the wake of what Betti has argued since the first half of the 20th century, as the foundation of civil coexistence. A further notion of c. which is opposed to the formal conception is, finally, the idea of ​​a “living constitution”, first developed in the USA and proposed by Paladin in Italy, in order to indicate the set of constitutional preconceptions actualized and actually applied by the constitutional jurisprudence.

A fundamental distinction investing in the notion of constitution is the rigid and flexible one. This distinction was first theorized by Bryce or, of course, by Dicey. For c. rigid are all those constitutions - including the Italian one in force and the American, German, Austrian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, etc. papers - which, for the purpose of their revision, provide for an aggravated procedure with respect to the ordinary legislative procedure (constitutional review), and, according to most of the doctrine, also a body called upon to syndicate the possible violation of c. by the ordinary legislature (Constitutional Court). Flexible constitutions, however, are all those that do not provide for peculiar processes for their revision - as in the case of France’s Costs of 1814 and 1830 and, according to a part of the doctrine, of the Albertinian Statute - and that can therefore be derogated from or amended by ordinary law.

In principle, it can be said that c. flexible products are the product of 19th-century constitutionalism, while the rigid ones would be the product of the one in the twentieth century, as the unhealthy social base of the latter necessarily requires an ultramaggiorical consensus on the basic rules of the juridical order. This statement, however, is not absolved, as there are obvious exceptions to the first case: the 1831 Constitution of Belgium, the 1874 Constitution of 1874, the Constitutional Laws of the Third French Republic (1875), which included all the aggravated procedures for their review.

A distinction that characterized socialist constitutional arrangements was, instead, the one between constitution-program and constitution-budget. In a first phase, in fact, of which is the expression c. of the Soviet Union in 1936, Soviet doctrine insisted on the fiscal character of c., constituting the latter a document reflecting the actual socio-economic reality in the various phases of the development of socialism. In a second period, by virtue of the stabilization of those regimes, the use of programmatic provisions was no longer considered an exception, but often became an ordinary drafting technique of c. (Articles 14, 3, 15, 2, 19, co.2,24, 2, 28, 2, and 30) U.R.S.S. 1977).

1.2 Constitution The Italian constitution. - The text of the constitution of the Italian Republic was approved by the constituent Assembly at the end of 1947, promulgated by the Provisional Head of State, De Nicola, and came into force in 1948. It originally consisted of 120 Articles and XVIII Transitional Provisions and final, and has been subject to many constitutional reviews so far, with which the original text (Constitutional Review) has been integrated and updated. These include in particular the full revision of Title V of Part II of the Constitution, relating to territorial autonomies, carried out with l. cost. n. 3/2001; while, on the other hand, none of the proposals formulated since the eighties of the twentieth century to change the form of government (State forms and forms of government) has found the consent of Parliament and / or the electoral body, as has been shown, lastly, from the rejection of the constitutional referendum of 2006 (Constitutional Review).

Some of the institutes envisaged in the constitutional text had to wait many years before entering into service, while others still continue to wait for implementation by the ordinary legislator. The first category includes the Constitutional Court, which saw light only in 1956; the Superior Council of the Judiciary, which was only operational in 1958; the abrogative referendum, whose implementing law was only approved in 1970; the Regions with Ordinary Autonomy (Region), whose troubled institution took place with the first election of the Regional Councils in 1970. The second category includes, inter alia, constitutional provisions on trade unions (Article 39 Cost.) and political parties (Article 49 Cost, Political Party).

Since its approval, doctrine and jurisprudence have been questioned with a diversity of views on the value to be attributed to the provisions of c. and above all its principles: while the Court of Cassation, of March 7, 1948, Marcianò, ended up giving a sort of jurisprudential cover to the impacts of c. and the continued existence of pre-republican legislation, by distinguishing between preconditions (immediately applicable) and programmatic norms (solely addressed by the legislator), some members of constitutionalist doctrine, including Crisafulli in particular, supported immediate applicability, albeit with different force, of all the provisions of the constitution, even if programmatic. This latter position was subsequently taken up by constitutional law, which, since its first judgment in 1956, considered the distinction between programmatic rules and precarious norms irrelevant for the purpose of judging constitutional legitimacy, with the constitutional illegitimacy of a law also descends from a constitutional provision of principle.

 

EUROPEAN CONSTITUTION

 European Union (EU) constitutional treaty project, which proposed to change the institutional structure of the EU in order to simplify decision-making and give the EU and its institutions more powers.

Prepared by a Convention on the Future of Europe, established in December 2001 with the Laeken Declaration, the first project was approved in June 2003 in Brussels; the Intergovernmental Conference of June 2004 then approved a provisional consolidated version, called «Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe», which the heads of state or government of then 25 EU Member States and their foreign ministers signed on 29 October 2004, in Rome. This project is generally referred to as the «European Constitution».

Subsequently, however, the Treaty was only ratified by 18 countries (including Italy) on a total of 27 Member States. In particular, the referendums on the ratification of the Treaty of Constitution in France on 29 May 2005 and in the Netherlands on 1 June of that year had a negative effect, whereas on 6 June the United Kingdom also decided to suspend the ratification process indefinitely and other member states declared the existence of various obstacles to ratification. It followed the decision of the European Council of 21-22 June 2007 to abandon the Draft Constitutional Treaty, which should have replaced the Maastricht Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on European Community, and merely revised the this last. This has been done through the Treaty signed in Lisbon on 13 December 2007 and entered into force in 2009, which, in amending the existing Treaties, has incorporated many of the substantive provisions of the non-constitution.

 

CONSTITUTIONALISM

The notion of constitutionalism is closely interwoven with that of constitution and constitutional law. Generally, constitutionalism is understood as the set of political-juridical doctrines that deal with the subject of political power and its limits. In general, modern modern constitutionalism can be said to relate to the adoption of written constitutions, such as solemn documents that legitimize and at the same time limit political power; this is with the remarkable exception to the British legal experience, from which the modern constitutionalism originated since the second half of the seventeenth century, which did not lead to the drafting of a written constitutional text.

It is important for an English historian, McIlwain, to emphasize the continuity of the idea of ​​constitution that, from Platonic reflection on «government of men» and «government of laws», found immediate use in the institutional architecture of Republican Rome, developing throughout the Middle Ages and the Modern Age, to reach the 20th century. In particular, the importance of the distinction made by the English jurist Bracton between gubernaculum (as a sphere in which the monarch could act without finding any limit) and iurisdictio (as a sphere in which the Sovereign was subject, however, to the principles of common law) as well as the drafting of a document such as the Magna Charta Libertatum (1215), which sanctioned a series of limitations that could not be ruled by monarchical power. Moreover, the idea that the Monarch (Capo dello Stato) could not act loose from all constraints is also present in the first great theorist of sovereignty, Bodin, according to which c.d. fundamental laws of the Kingdom were subtracted from the rule of law.

However, it is only with the affirmation of the democratic state that, besides the subject of power limitation, also centrality is the power of legitimization of power. In particular, the constitutionalism of the twentieth century is central to the affirmation of a plurality of tasks that are to be assumed by the public authorities, with the concomitant overcoming of the nineteenth liberal conception of the constitution as a mere limitation to power. It would shape the c.d. constitutional democracy, founded on the one hand on the principle of popular sovereignty, but also, at the same time, on the safeguarding of constitutional rights, presided over by a constitutional justice body (Constitutional Court).

From the awareness of the complex phenomena that invest contemporary constitutional states, a recent philosophy of law has emerged, called «neo-constitutionalism,» which, rather than questioning the relationship between constitution and political power, has come back to the relationship between law and morality , because of the fundamental role assumed by the constitutional principles (and values) within the legal systems of the present time. According to this line of thought - which originates from the reflection of Dworkin and includes among its exponents Alexy, Santiago Nino, Habermas - constitutional law would end up being almost a natural right with a new outfit. 

 

Contry Focus: Czech Republic

Contry Focus: Czech Republic - ATLANTIS

 

Czech Republic

Its territory, corresponding to that of the two historical regions of Bohemia and Moravia, includes the plain formed by the Elbe course (the Boema Basin), the internal slopes of the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains and the Sudetes, the Highlands of Moravia, the plain of the high and medium Morava. Besides the Elbe, the main river, the two tributaries of the Moldava and the Ohře are also important. The climate is continental.

In the folk tradition Čech is the name of a leader who from the Transcarpathia led his tribe in the center of Bohemia (then called Čechy), whose members were called Češi or Čechové (plurals of čech). With the merging of this Slavic tribe with other similar, the Czech people formed under the dominion of the Přemyslids. This name later extended also to the groups established in Moravia, while in non-Slavic languages this people was called a Bohemian.

The current population is made up of Czechs (90.4%), Moravians (3.7%), similar to the former and speaking the same language, from Slovaks (1.9%) and minorities from Poles, Silesians, Germans and others. The number of inhabitants suffered a slight decrease in the 1990s due to the decline in the birth rate and the aging population. The capital, Prague, welcomes in the complex of the urban agglomeration (which exceeds the limits of its administrative unit) almost 1.2 million inhabitants; other large concentrations are those of Brno, the capital of South Moravia, Ostrava and Plzeň.

In the religious field, the majority Catholic (26.8%) is joined by a traditional, active small Protestant minority and Hussites (2.1%), in addition to non-practicing any cult representing 59% of the population.

The new Republic immediately requested to join the European Union and the following decade was dedicated to achieving the necessary parameters for entry into the EU. The privatization program, the stabilization of prices and money and the creation of a new banking system have attracted numerous foreign investors. After a slowdown in the second half of the 1990s, measures taken to control public spending, including tax and health reform, the innovations introduced in the labor market and those aimed at facilitating the development of small medium-sized companies have led to significant economic growth, with a relative increase in GDP (4.2% estimated in 2008). It remains high, with the tendency to increase the unemployment rate (8%).

Agriculture, largely privatized, boasts specialized productions: sugar beet, wheat, barley (for brewing, with the complementary cultivation of hops in the Ořře valley), potatoes and even, on modest surfaces, vines ( Moravia, Mælník plain). The woods dominate the mountain areas and cover a third of the country’s surface as a whole. The prevalent breeding is the pig breeding. The weight of the agricultural sector is still a minority, since the Czech Republic is primarily an industrial country, with strong concentrations of production especially in Northern Bohemia, further strengthened by the entry of foreign groups into the country. A traditional coal-mining country, it derives significant quantities of lignite from the basins of Ostrava, in the Czech Silesia adjacent to the Polish one, and northern Bohemia; in these areas a robust steel plant is implanted and several lignite thermal plants are built. Energy is also derived from imported Russian oil and two nuclear power plants, which also use locally extracted uranium. Finally, the Republic C. obtains small quantities of metallic minerals from the subsoil. Its industrial profile continues to be essentially that of a country that imports raw materials to export artifacts: from cars to traditional Bohemian crystals and porcelain, from musical instruments to the fabrics of the northern foothills (Erzgebirge and Sudeti), to footwear. The forest economy feeds paper mills and furniture factories. A large part of the commercial relations of the Republic C. is held, as well as with Slovakia (between the two States was signed from the beginning a customs union agreement), with Germany. Tourism can count on the natural beauties, on the works of art and on the urban structure of the capital.

The C. Republic was born on January 1, 1993, following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the final stage of the crisis that had hit the country after the fall of the communist regime and which saw the re-emergence of contrasts between Czechs (in favor of maintaining a certain centralization) and Slovaks (advocates of a confederate state). In the course of 1992 it was the Czech Republic, led by the liberalist V. Klaus, to promote the dissolution of the Czechoslovak State. The separation from the most backward Slovakia was conceived as a passage that would have favored its integration with the West (NATO and EU). A parliamentary constitution (bicameral) came into force immediately: V. Havel became president of the Republic and Klaus maintained the leadership of the government (center-right coalition) with a program focused on the liberal transformation of the economy (privatization of the productive apparatus and services, incentives for foreign investments, introduction of a new currency, creation of a new banking system), which led the Republic C. to be the first among the Central and Eastern European countries to enter the OECD (1995). In the 1996 general election, the Democratic Party of the Prime Minister won the majority and thanks to the votes of the allies (Christian Democratic Union and the Democratic Alliance) could form a new government, but the opposition, relying on the discontent raised by the new economic course, marked a significant growth. In 1997 Klaus had to resign, overwhelmed by hard contrasts with the opposition, and J. Tošovský formed a transitional cabinet. In 1998, after the re-election of Havel as president, the early elections took place, which saw the affirmation of the Social Democratic Party; his leader M. Zeman constituted a minority government that gained confidence thanks to the abstention of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia and of the Democratic Civic Party. The social-democratic prevalence was confirmed in 2002, when V. Spidla became head of government. In 2003 Havel was replaced by V. Klaus. The decline of the Social Democrats’ fortunes, already manifested during the 2004 European elections, led to the 2006 legislature winning the center-right coalition, led by M. Topolánek (replaced in 2009 by J. Fischer and in 2010 by P. Nečas, resigned in June 2013), and to the re-election of Klaus, while the presidential consultations - the first direct elections in the country’s history - held in January 2013 recorded the victory of former Social Democratic Prime Minister Zeman, who obtained 54.8% of votes by imposing himself on the conservative opponent K. Schwarzenberg. In June 2013, following the resignation of Nečas, President Zeman instructed the economist and former minister J. Rusnok to form a technical government, but in the following August, Parliament denied the confidence of the politician. The early elections, held in October, saw the affirmation of the Social Democrats (20.4% of the vote, two percentage points less than the previous consultations, and the result that does not allow the party to govern alone), while the second The country’s political force is the liberal Ano 2011 party founded by the entrepreneur A. Babiš, who gained 18.6% of the consensus preceding the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (14.91%). In January 2014, President Zeman appointed Prime Minister Social Democratic Party leader B. Sobotka, who in May 2017 announced his resignation - later withdrawn - following differences with the Finance Minister Babiš, who was suspected of having committed tax offenses and replaced by I. Pilny only after a serious institutional crisis opened up following President Zeman’s refusal to remove the entrepreneur from any government position; the entrepreneur has nevertheless clearly stated in the parliamentary elections held in October 2017, to which he obtained 30% of the votes, while the other parties reported very close results, with the Civic Democratic party at 11.3%, the Pirate party at 10.8% and the Social Democrats of Prime Minister Sobotka plunged to 7.5%.

At the international level, the Republic C., in addition to maintaining good relations with Slovakia, has engaged in a policy of regional integration, resulting in the Central European Free Trade Agreement (1992) among the countries of the Visegrád Group (Republic ., Slovakia, Poland and Hungary). Relations with the United States and Western Europe have strengthened, in particular by establishing relations with Germany. This line was confirmed by the submission of the application for EU membership (1996), and then by entry into NATO (1999), the EU (2004) and the Schengen area (2007). 

 

Deseas in the World: Poliomyelitis

Deseas in the World: Poliomyelitis - ATLANTIS

 

Poliomyelitis 

Polio, or polio, is an infectious disease caused by polyovirus, Enterovirus-type RNA viruses.

There are three polyovirus serotypes: 1, 2, and 3.

Human cells are equipped with specific protein receptors to which the polioviruses can adhere and therefore penetrate susceptible cells. The virus infects the oropharyngeal cells, the tonsils, the neck lymph nodes, and the small intestine.

The infection evolves through viral replication cycles, causing the destruction of infected cells. Once the infection is established, polioviruses can reach the central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier, through the blood stream or through the nerve fibers. When non-immune subjects are exposed to wild polioviruses, they may have inexperienced symptoms without symptoms, with few symptoms (febrile, nausea, diarrhea), aseptic meningitis, or paralytic forms. Only about 1% of infections manifest themselves as clinically recognizable disease.

The incubation period varies from 4 to 35 days, typically 7-14 days. Initial clinical symptoms may include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, constipation (or less commonly diarrhea), neck pain and pain in the limbs. Viral multiplication destroys motor neurons that do not regenerate, hesitating in the functional disability of the affected muscles, although in some cases it is possible to retrieve muscle function in a complete way. There are no medicines that can cure this disease; the only possibility is the prevention through vaccination.

Italy was officially certified as “polio-free” on 21 June 2002, although the last case that occurred in our country dates back to 1982.

The reappearance of the disease, however, is always possible, as long as there are areas in the world where the disease is present and widespread. Therefore, it is active to monitor the cases of acute flaccid paralysis (PFA), one of the most serious complications of poliomyelitis.

On 21 June 2002, at the 14th meeting of the Regional Certification Commission (RCC), held at the European Regional Office of the WHO in Copenhagen, was officially declared the eradication of polio in the European region (which extends from Portugal to Siberia, including, in addition to Israel and Turkey, the Caucasian and Asian States, formerly part of the USSR), joining the other two WHO regions already certified in 1994 (Region of the Americas) and in 2000 (Region of the Western Pacific).

Italy “polio free country” since 1982

Italy, although officially certified as “polio-free” on June 21, 2002, has been a free polio country since the 1980s (the last case occurred in 1982).

The reappearance of the disease, however, is always possible, as long as there are areas in the world where the disease is present and widespread. Therefore, it is active to monitor the cases of acute flaccid paralysis (PFA), one of the most serious complications of poliomyelitis. The surveillance is carried out in collaboration with the Higher Health Institute and allows the detection and notification of all cases of PFA due to any etiology in subjects below 15 years of age and of any suspected polio in people of every age. 

 

 

Sport & Culture

Sport & Culture - ATLANTIS

 

First Focus 2017

The “Sport and Globalization” Focus, which began the “Sport & Culture” conference, held in Monastier (Treviso) on Monday 6 November 2017, and organized by the National Veterans Union of Sport “Ercole Olgeni” of Venice and by Atlantis and supported by the Sogedin Spa Group, it opened with the greetings of the Authorities, beginning with the Vice-President of the Veneto Region, Gianluca Forcolin, the Mayor Paola Moro and the Presidents of the associations that sponsored the initiative (including FIGC and AIAC Association Italian National Footballers). The first testimonials of the day were Federico Casarin and Walter De Raffaele, representatives of the Reyer Campione d’Italia 2016/17 of Pallacanestro, presented by the journalist Luigi Bignotti.Here is the greeting by Gianluca Amadori, President of the Order of Journalists of the Veneto region.The morning’s work continued with three panels. The first Sport and Geopolitics. The second panel entitled Sports and Divided. The third and final meeting-interview Sport, Religion and Human Rights.The morning ended with the intervention of Stefania Schipani, president of the Rifareleuropa European study center in Rome and the report by Luisella Pavan Woolfe, Ambassador and director of the Italian Council of Europe Office based in Venice. The afternoon session started with the Sport, Enterprise and Innovation panel. The Sport and Aesthetic panel continued. Continuation with Sport and Health Law. Final panel with Sport and Integration. 

 

I Panel: Sport & Geopolitica

I Panel: Sport & Geopolitica - ATLANTIS

Sport & Geopolitics

 Moderator: Andrea Mazzanti

The first panel of the “Sport and Culture Conference”, the focus of the first edition “Sport and Globalization”, was entitled “Sport and Geopolitics”. Marco Bellinazzo, journalist of Il Sole 24 Ore and Radio 24, expert in sports economics, author of the book I Veri Padroni del Calcio and Arduino Paniccia, professor of International Relations at the University of Trieste and Gorizia, columnist, participated in the interview-interview. in matters of intelligence, foreign diplomatic issues and terrorism for Rai Radio 1 and TG2 Rai. Author of La Pace Armata with General Leonardo Leso and Transforming the Future. Andrea Mazzanti, co-director of Atlantis, moderated. He was responsible for defining Geopolitics, a subject that deals with the relationship between International Relations and geographical factors, understood not only as a physical configuration - such as the natural barriers formed by mountains and river networks - but also the climate, the demographic composition of the population, cultural reasons and access to natural resources. Factors like these - added Paniccia - can have a significant impact on many different aspects of a civilization, from military strategy to social development, including language, commerce and religion.

Football is the most powerful nation that has ever appeared in history and is an essential element of geopolitics, like religion, oil, technology and financial business - stressed Bellinazzo - La Fifa is a center of power that is more and more neuralgic but, together to the last major clubs of the Old Continent - Real Madrid, Barcelona, ​​Bayern Monaco, Juventus - to preserve their sovereignty must come to terms with the real, new, owners of football. Mazzanti: Who are they? Paniccia declares himself indifferent to football and sport in general, even if power games and money flows, corruption and scandals hiding behind global football and rebuilding the red threads of a multi-billion dollar market that involves political and economic powers of the planet are an undoubted component of the photograph of world power. For Bellinazzo: From the Russian oligarchs to the sheikhs of the Arab Emirates, from the American big companies to the Chinese corporations, the bond that unites the interests of governments and multinationals to this sport is increasingly solid and often turbid. The government of football now is not just about the administration of a sport and its championships, but it is above all a source of billionaire revenues and political legitimacy for the states. Because football leads the masses, creates social consensus and, even before that, is a theater that hosts games of power and global financial wars, as pervasive as they are invisible in the eyes of the spectators. Paniccia recalled how “Panem et circenses” are not a novelty of globalization and that sport in the ancient sense was nothing but military training reserved for both noble youth and the troops. So much so that in our cities are recognizable with the name of Campi di Marte the spaces that were formerly reserved for these activities. What are the connections between entertainment and sporting activities and geopolitics, then asked the moderator Mazzanti Bellinazzo? If the government of football is more and more crucial for the revenues of the billionaires it manages, it has become just as crucial on a political level - highlighted Bellinazzo - Because the real owners of football are also the real masters of the world. Paniccia recalled that behind the substantial investments in sports and football in China, there is certainly an intention to communicate the Chinese power and efficiency both to the Chinese people (internal communication) and to other nations (external communications) and the whole it is closely connected to the modern armament effort that China is making together with the work of post-colonization of entire areas of the world and above all of Africa. The next World Soccer Championships that will be played in Russia will not include the Italian national team - underlined Mazzanti - nor the national team of the United States. It is not the case to do dietrologia - commented Paniccia - but if as regards Italy it was a completely involuntary sporting defeat, as far as the USA is concerned, maybe Trump has blessed as perfectly the Panama goal that he eliminated them, avoiding the embarrassment of the American team’s participation in Putin’s home. The geopolitical matrix of the Russian World Cup in the summer of 2018 was sealed by the draw just officiated in the Kremlin in the presence of Vladimir Putin - continued Bellinazzo - The “Tsar” of the new Russia reassured by successes in the Syrian area, the football event claims a consecration of the regained Moscow status of global power. Naturally - concluded Paniccia - situations like those of the World Cup or the Olympics are very tempting for international terrorists because the attention of the entire world is focused on the event. It was not by chance that in 1974 the Palestinian group Nero Nero chose the German Olympics in Munich to kidnap Israeli athletes and make their political aberrant project known. 

 

II Panel: Sport & Divisa

II Panel: Sport & Divisa - ATLANTIS

 

Sport & Uniforms

Moderator: Carlo Mazzanti

 

The second panel of the "Sport and Culture Conference", the focus of the first edition "Sport and Globalization", was entitled "Sport e Divisa". The captain interview was attended by the Captain of Vascello Gianluca Buccilli, director of the master courses at the Institute of Maritime Military Studies in Venice; the Army Corps General Leonardo Leso formerly Military Counselor and Defense Officer at the UN Diplomatic Representation in New York (among other things former Commander of the Carabinieri Command of Treviso) and Francesco Ippoliti, General of the Italian Army, decorated by the US government for a heroic rescue action of a platoon of American soldiers in Afghanistan. As a valued General of the Carabinieri, Leso immediately took the initiative, pointing out that his report (published below) could not be read in such a succinct context. However, he recalled how sporting and military activities have always historically gone hand in hand, as the professional soldier needs both a natural athletic structure and a psycho-physical training that must remain unaltered over the years. The second question, addressed to the officer of the Buccilli Navy, saw a continuous response to the path already traced by Leso. Military life, basically, is a continuous theoretical and practical preparation - in this the comparison with sport is important if not fundamental - to an event that is not said (fortunately) to happen. Indeed, the military professional, precisely for the awareness of the disruptive consequences of his action of force, is the first proponent of prudence and peace. But how do you live the sport - active or practiced or passive or watched on television or at a stadium - during a conflict? This is the question addressed to Hippolytes, an officer of the Italian Army, engaged with the NATO Forces practically in all the last international interventions. The answer, addressed above all to school children attending the conference, was anything but trivial. In fact, if the vision of a match of the Italian National team, can bring a feeling of unity but also of serenity among the soldiers, a sporting event involving local teams can be the fuse for a violent action like an attack or something else. The problem of bringing pacification into a problematic area from the point of view of security is that every detail of the social life of the theater in which it operates can be important and nothing must be left out or minimized. General Leso recalled how national pride should never be mortified, exhibiting futile denigration of the uniform, because defending one's own interests and above all one's own values is a necessary condition for the maintenance of fundamental freedoms, which we often give in the West. for granted without them at all. Always thinking of the public of school classes accompanied by teachers, Buccilli was asked if he had any hesitations in choosing a military career. The answer was that, coming from a military family, from an early age he wanted to wear the uniform by profession. However, despite the conviction with which he arrived at the Academy, he had to see for himself the hardness of the training and the need for a truly extraordinary commitment to study. Military life - he concluded - is as beautiful and fascinating as it is tough and competitive. Hippolytes added that as well as an obliged choice - having been orphaned by a non-commissioned father of the Carabinieri - his has proved to be a project of life that would never betray. And in this, he nodded to his mother in the audience who confessed that he had always called the "carabiniera" because of the inflexibility with which he raised three children. Among other things, his sister, who teaches Italian literature at the University of New Mexico in the United States, married a General of the US Army. Leso also recalled that the eldest son is making his way as a young officer of the Carabinieri, which makes him proud and it is not accidental that those who have always known the life of the milestone make this choice with success. The Captain of Vascello Buccilli has underlined how the women's master courses for young students - who hold at the Institute of Maritime Maritime Studies, at the Venice Arsenal - are increasingly numerous and motivated. Hippolytes recalled how the thought always went home when, on board of its armored vehicle, he returned to the barracks after a day of patrolling in Afghanistan and how much each professional soldier should be kept in order physically - like a real athlete - to overcome the annual physical test. Finally, General Leso rose from his chair to show the public and in particular the younger audience, the graphics of the conference that stood behind the speakers. "If we are here to talk freely about Jessie Owens - she said in a firm voice - it is for the many soldiers who fought for freedom and if we are here to read those words written in our language is because we have defended our nation". And we will continue to defend it. 

 

 

III Panel: Sport, Religione & Diritti Umani

III Panel: Sport, Religione & Diritti Umani - ATLANTIS

 

Sport, Religion & Human Rights

Moderator: Domenico Letizia

During the work of the “Sport and Culture Conference”, focus of the first edition “Sport and Globalization”, I had the pleasure and the burden of moderating the panel dedicated to “Sport, Religion and Human Rights”. The panel was attended by Antonio Stango, a political scientist, publisher and expier of human rights at the international level, the professor Aldo Aledda, writer and university professor and the philosopher Romano Toppan, professor of the University of Verona. The discussion has explored the history of sport, far from focusing solely on the mere agonistic datum, but as a moment of reflection on the complex dynamics of contemporary societies. The questions addressed to the speakers have highlighted the universal nature of the principles that regulate the rights recognized as universal and the principles of sporting events. The philosopher Toppan and the political scientist Stango have reiterated the essentiality of a historiography that looks at the development of the international projection of Italian sport. Although the sphere of sport is relatively independent of the relationship system to which it belongs, the balance of international sports tends to reflect those of international politics. Professor Aledda said that sport, in this perspective, becomes a container where to insert the moral and rules that society tends to see in sport, forgetting the human side that hides behind every professional and mythologizing those who are the socially recognized principles of fairness and international professionalism. The discussion analyzed the link that modern sport has developed in the international dimension, which ended up interacting with international politics and its actors. With “sport of contemporaneity”, we define a phenomenon that presents itself as secularized, provides equality and universality, as the principles underlying universal declarations of human rights, allows everyone to have the opportunity to compete by guaranteeing the same opportunities for victory, requires an ever greater specialization, imposes rules that rationalize the procedures and requires institutions that facilitate a bureaucratic organization, an approach that we also find in the history of religions. The Stango political scientist also drew attention to the analysis of gender relations in sports activity, highlighting the substantial gap that contemporaneity reveals and encouraging the debate to investigate the gender problem linked to sports activity and management. . From an academic point of view, the one between sport and international relations has long been a complicated relationship. Sport was conceived as something not as imposing as politics but, at the same time, as something pure, immune to the pettiness of the political world. With the end of communism and the emergence of online society, the growing attention to the ability to attract and persuade social capital has recognized the transnational political dimension of sport. Many sports are no longer identifiable as the product of a single national, but they are the object of study only from an international perspective, in which the opponent is not an enemy to be killed but a subject that is needed to compete. The speakers highlighted that it is precisely the emotional nature, together with personal, public and popular, highly visible in sport that makes this phenomenon significant for international relations. Returning to Aledda’s reflections, sport can become an instrument of dictatorships but can also be a tool for the diffusion of democratic and universalistic principles. Another essential aspect emphasized by the speakers and in particular by Professor Aledda is the superficial approach and the tendency to minimize the scope in analyzing a series of studies in relation to sports and youth and sport and education, in which a number of Italian sociologists , engaged in research on the youth universe, try to underestimate the importance of sports, hastening and simplifying the analysis and, sometimes, even polluting, confusing, emptying and messing up data. For some, practicing a sport activity, in the context of organized activities, can constitute, yes, an important fact - and it can not be because the numbers are there to prove it - but is still posed after many other youth interests, often trivial and random, or almost physiological, like finding oneself next to the wall or attending dance halls. A serious scholar like the American political scientist Robert Putnam, in his famous essay on the Italian regions, does not fail to note that Italian associationism is, to a great extent, of a sporting nature. The speakers, focusing on the exposition of Aldo Aledda, agreed that the relationship between universalism, education and geopolitics is based on the observation that, for a country constantly looking for what holds it together, sport assumes a peculiar geopolitical value, also religious concept, as reiterated by Toppan. The political scientist Stango stressed that sport being an activity that does not possess an a priori political value, any regime that wants it can convey its ideology and its policies through sport, just as all the causes can transform the public spaces of the sport in an international stage. Given the current relevance of sport, in the contemporary era, this approach is essential for the dissemination of the universal principles recognized by human rights conventions. The sports institutions have created an institutional mechanism of international organizations that interact with each other, with the state government and with the international non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This approach, to be supported, all the panel’s speakers agree, is evident in the proposal of the organizers of the work to formulate, share and disseminate a “Manifesto of the European rights of the sport of all” to be presented to the Council of Europe. The affirmation of victory or defeat in a sporting activity are the two sides of the medal emblem, summarized in the right to participation, inclusion and integration, against any bias and discrimination of any kind. 

 

IV Panel: Sport & Europa

IV Panel: Sport & Europa - ATLANTIS

Sport & Europe

 

Stefania Schipani

 

The relationship between globalization and sport can not be separated from the relationship between sport and Europe. Just sport can be a very useful flywheel for the revival of a “healthy” idea of ​​Europe understood as a Europe of citizens that can not but involve young people.

Sport is increasingly interested in the population both in Italy and in Europe and this is a positive factor for the economy, well-being and social integration.

Some numbers for all: in Italy there are about 15 million people who are engaged in a more or less professional way in sports. If you think that, as ISTAT points out, in 1959 sport (especially hunting and football) was an activity practiced only by 1 million and 230 thousand people, especially adult men, and that only 1% of sportsmen had less of 14 years, progress has been truly remarkable.

In 2016 one person out of four does sport and this means that sport has evolved over time into a socially relevant activity at all levels.

However, there are still many differences between the Italian territories. In the North-East, 30.5% of the population practice sport, while in the South only 17.5%. The practice of sport therefore depends heavily on economic availability and infrastructure. Precisely for this reason, encouraging sport in every way means also fostering social inclusion and development.

Sport is also good for health and, as the WHO also maintains, physical inactivity is the fourth risk factor for mortality. Sedentary and excess weight represent a risk for over half of adults.

Furthermore, the economic impact of the sport occupying almost 117 thousand people in Italy (0.5% of the total employment) is not negligible. Here too, Made in Italy is felt and Italy is among the main exporters of sports products in the European Union.

Yet the EU has made a relatively active role in sport relatively recently.

The Treaties do not provide specific legal competence in the field of sport before 2009. The Commission has laid the groundwork for an EU sport policy with the 2007 White Paper on Sport and the related Pierre de Coubertin action plan. »In 2008. Only with the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, did it acquire for the first time a specific competence in the field of sport, for the development of concrete policies and for the promotion of cooperation and management initiatives to support physical activity and sport.

Article 6 (e) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) states that the EU has powers to carry out actions to support or supplement the action of Member States in the field of sport, and the article 165 contains the detailed aspects of sport policy. The Union “contributes to the promotion of European sports profiles, taking into account its specificities, its structures based on volunteering and its social and educational function” and aims to “develop the European dimension of sport, promoting equity and openness in sporting competitions and cooperation between the bodies responsible for sport and protecting the physical and moral integrity of athletes, especially the youngest among them ».

Much is now being realized through the Erasmus + program, and EU sport ministers also meet at the Education, Youth, Culture and Sport Council meetings. The European Court of Justice has in parallel developed important jurisprudence with far-reaching repercussions on the world of sport (such as the Bosman case).

The Resolution of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States of 21 May 2014, on the European Union Work Plan for Sport (2014-2017), identified three main areas of concern for the EU: the integrity of the sport, its economic dimension and the relationship between sport and society. Growing importance has the European Week of Sport, consisting of a series of initiatives to encourage European citizens to practice physical activity and the EU supports it through the Erasmus + program.

In September 2016 the Commission also published a study examining how sport supports the integration of migrants in Europe. promoting projects and networks for the social inclusion of migrants through the European Structural and Investment Funds and the Erasmus + program.

These successes of the sport’s role indicate that the message has taken root that sport is something beneficial for everyone. This was possible thanks to initiatives at all levels that were conveyed in a different way and by different actors, as on the occasion of the conference on Sport and Globalization held in Monastier on 6 November 2017.

These results need messages that underline the correct values ​​of sport.

Thus a new initiative was born: that of a European Manifesto that provocatively overturns what we are used to considering as the main objective of sporting competition.

It is the European Manifesto on the value of defeat.

Defeat is part of the sporting comparison. Faced with a sportsman who wins, there is always a sportsman who has lost for whom the value of sport is certainly not inferior.

The initiative of the Manifesto is also supported by the Italian Federation of Italian Human Rights, chaired by Antonio Stango and the Rifareleuropa European study center and aims to build a common ideal base for carrying out information, training and awareness projects on the values ​​of sports in schools, starting from Veneto to get to other Italian regions.

And it is only the beginning of a new path that will see large and small associations in interventions on the territory that involve young and old in a social inclusion for all.

As Pierpaolo Pasolini said in a sentence that is the fulcrum of the Manifesto:

“But I am a man who prefers to lose rather than win with unfair and ruthless ways. Serious fault on my part, I know! And the beauty is that I have the audacity to defend this guilt, to consider it almost a virtue...”. Pier Paolo Pasolini

 

A EUROPEAN MANIFEST ON THE VALUE 

OF DEFEAT FROM THE VENETO SCHOOLS

From Venice and the Schools of the Veneto a European manifesto for the affirmation that victory and defeat are the two sides of the same coin or the right to participation, inclusion, integration, health against gender discrimination and race, physical and mental ability, religious belief or political opinion, every bias and arrogance of the winner on the defeated.

 

The project includes activities of promotion, information, training and awareness raising that will initially involve school children from lower secondary schools in the Veneto region to progressively include a wider Italian and European audience through the sharing of a “Manifesto of European rights to the sport of all. “To be presented to the Council of Europe.

The initiative is also supported by the Italian Federation of Italian Human Rights, chaired by Antonio Stango and the Rifareleuropa European study center, chaired by Stefania Schipani, present at the conference together with Ambassador Luisella Pavan-Woolfe, director of the Italian Council ‘Europe.

The project activities will be carried out through the involvement of the Italian regions with the aim of developing a partnership with other European countries in compliance with the principles of the Manifesto indicated here:

sport is a field of comparison between diversity

sport is not a fight

victory never implies submission

defeat is not failure

sport is an expression of freedom

sport is loyalty

sport is not exercise of force

sport is inclusion

sport is ethical

 

The beginning of the Manifesto is taken from a famous phrase by the Friulian writer Pierpaolo Pasolini:

“But I am a man who prefers to lose rather than win with unfair and ruthless ways. Serious fault on my part, I know! And the beauty is that I have the audacity to defend this guilt, to consider it almost a virtue... “. Pier Paolo Pasolini

Council of Europe & Sport

Council of Europe & Sport - ATLANTIS

Council of Europe & Sport

 

Luisella Pavan-Woolfe

Director Council of Europe Venice Office

 

All understand the value of sport.

We know that when our children participate in a sporting activity they learn about “life skills”, social and personal skills that will help them throughout their lives. They learn to adhere to the rules, show respect, work in a team, have self-confidence and self-esteem.

We also know that children and boys who later become elite athletes raise these values ​​to new heights and bring them to the national and international scene.

The panels this morning told us that bridges are being built on the international scene through sport, dissent is fought and excellences are celebrated together.

But those who spoke before me also pointed out that sport is not immune to difficulties and tensions and that through sport we play geopolitical games that reflect international balances and conflicts. I would like to try to offer you some conclusions on the issues of ethics, integrity, and safety in sport.

 

Council of Europe and sport

Over the past forty years, the Council of Europe has promoted the positive values ​​of sport, has sought to extend participation in sporting activities and combat the threats it faces at local, national and international levels.

This is in line with our mission to support democracy, human rights and - in particular - the rule of law.

Ten years ago we made a significant step forward.

The Council of Europe established the EPAS, an inclusive platform for cooperation between public authorities and sports organizations, not only between our Member States, but also between non-European countries.

This is a forum in which emerging issues are discussed, but also an incubator in which to experiment with new remedies.

The platform offers authorities and sports organizations a wide range of information, guidelines and practical tools to promote ethical, inclusive and safe sports.

At the same time, we have adopted wide-ranging multilateral conventions designed to address the great sporting challenges of the modern era.

Manipulation of sports competitions

The manipulation of sports competitions is one of the threats to be won.

This phenomenon hides a multi-billion dollar activity and represents a serious offense for the integrity of the sport.

Where there is no good governance, there is a greater risk that the participants will be cheated and become the object of improper practices, such as the discrimination and non-respect of human rights mentioned in the fourth panel this morning.

We all know that organized criminal activity, and not, corrupts referees and athletes to distort the outcome of sporting events. Where this happens, criminal networks are enriched and sport suffers.

For this reason, the 2014 Council of Europe Convention on the handling of sports competitions commits countries to maintain high standards to avoid match-fixing and provides them with the advice and assistance they need.

UNESCO has played a decisive and supportive role in the negotiations of the Convention and in the follow-up process and calls on all countries, not just European ones, to join efforts through the implementation of this text.

 

Doping

Similarly, the use of drugs that improve performance (doping) distorts sporting results and undermines the confidence of all of us in sport. We have all heard of cases and major scandals that have emerged in recent years in a wide range of sports.

Here too, international efforts are needed to tackle this phenomenon.

The Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention was the first legally binding international agreement in this area.

It paved the way for the creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency and the UNESCO Convention.

Today we focus on a two-pronged strategy: to strengthen the control of compliance by the States parties and to provide targeted assistance to countries that want to improve anti-doping policy and practices.

 

Corruption

The corrosive effects of corruption also exist in the sports field.

And let’s talk about another scourge: we’ve all read about bribes, rigged bets and votes bought in tender procedures.

Good governance is essential to eliminate the possibilities of this type of criminal action.

Last year, the Council of Europe’s Sports Ministers met in Budapest, where they proposed a framework for cooperation between states, international organizations and the international sports movement to combat international corruption.

A working group met this summer to form an “International Partnership against Corruption in Sport” and take concrete measures.

The implementation of good governance must take place at all levels: local, national and international. In 2018 and 2019, the Council of Europe will support Member States to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in areas that include both sport and the fight against violence, discrimination and corruption.

 

Fight against discrimination

This morning we talked about sport, religion and human rights. Good governance requires measures to combat discrimination based on race, ethnicity, physical and intellectual ability, sexual orientation and gender. I will say a few words about the gender dimension. And I remember that women’s rights are human rights.

In 2016, the Council of Europe joined forces with the EU and the International Olympic Committee to develop a set of gender equality indicators in sport.

We launched a data collection campaign in five strategic areas: women in managerial positions, women coaches, gender violence, gender stereotypes in the media and participation in sport.

We want to intensify this effort and encourage states, authorities and sports organizations to use these indicators to assess the success of gender equality policies and initiatives.

In this context it is then necessary to change mentalities and culture. Many journalists are present in the hall today. I would therefore like to underline the importance of the role of the media in combating gender stereotypes.

 

Safety in sport

Finally, I would like to say a few words about safety and safety at sporting events.

One tragedy is too much a tragedy, and if on the one hand we can never eliminate the possibility of accidents, fires or improper practices, on the other we can and must continue to work to minimize risks.

The 2016 Council of Europe Convention on the integrated approach to security and service in football matches and other sporting events goes in this direction. Establishes an institutional cooperation between all the parties involved in the organization of sporting events.

This included the training of security personnel of major international events such as Euro 2012 and will still do so for a greater number of employees for Euro 2020.

The convention will soon replace the old European Convention on Spectator Violence, adopted in 1985 immediately after the Heysel tragedy, and each country will have the opportunity to join and benefit from its rules and indications.

It will be the only legally binding international instrument that will address the issue.

It is therefore not surprising that more and more countries from America and Asia are taking part in the work of setting up the convention, which we see with great satisfaction.

 

Conclusion

Sport should be ethical, inclusive and safe - from the local amateur level to the international professional level.

The Council of Europe has gained decades of experience in this field.

Yes, the EPAS and our conventions have been developed in Europe, but they are also open to the rest of the world.

Thanks to enhanced cooperation with UNESCO, we can now extend the benefits of these rules and our monitoring and assistance activities beyond Europe.

Sport in a globalized world is the mirror of international balances and imbalances; it continues to be an expression of nations and nationalisms, but is increasingly international; and needs global answers to face the great sports, but also cultural, social, economic and political challenges of the modern era. 

 

 

V Panel: Sport, Impresa & Innovazione

V Panel: Sport, Impresa & Innovazione - ATLANTIS

Sport, Business & Innovation

 

Moderator: Paolo Navarro Dina

 

The first afternoon panel of the “Sport and Culture Conference”, the focus of the first edition “Sport and Globalization”, was entitled “Sport, Enterprise and Innovation”. Tommaso Santini, managing director of the Science Park and administrative advisor of the Ca ‘Foscari University of Venice and Technological Foundation of Venice, participated in the meeting-interview; Vincenzo Marinese, entrepreneur and newly elected president of Confindustria Venezia-Rovigo and Luigino Rossi, former president of Rossi Moda, Il Gazzettino and the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice. The moderator, journalist of Il Gazzettino, has prompted Luigino Rossi on the subject and the sailed captain of industry has not pulled back. “I have always been involved in footwear - he has attacked - and the parallel between the technological progress of the shoe and the athlete’s performance will not be missed. Just think of football and the early twentieth-century photographs that saw footballers wear shoes that are more like boots than actual shoes in ultralight plastic materials. And of course it is not only the athletic shoe that has made giant steps but all the technical clothing, today sophisticated, lightweight but durable. Result of considerable research and investments “. Marinese, on the other hand, underlined the indispensable link between business and sport, both from the point of view of financial support but also of identity and loyalty. Marinese, recently leading the Venetian and Rovigo industrialists, has an experience in the ownership of Calcio Venezia. He then stressed the need to create an inseparable union between team-sports movement, territory-city and business-economic system. “Not neglecting school and training”, he concluded. Santini has highlighted how research is both competitive in itself and how many links are made between sport and innovation, starting from the life of campuses and business incubators, where traditionally students and researchers play their more or less intense sporting activity. Rossi has expanded the field to internationalization, remembering that there is no need to fear the participation of those who are not Italian in terms of composing and managing a sports team as well as a corporate structure aimed at industrial production. “I do not share the suspicions of those who would like a ‘nativism’ in sport as well as in politics, because talent has no borders or nationalities or even capital. The Made in Italy, then, is so strong that it must not fear competition as a winner in itself “. Marinese has analyzed the ten years of difficulty of the Italian business, comparing them with some difficulties of national sport “even if things are changing and the economic barometer marks time improving”. He then shared Rossi’s opinion on the strength of Made in Italy and on the strong tempers of the Veneto and Italian entrepreneurs. “However - and it is not the usual refrain - we are penalized by a cumbersome system that prevents us from doing everything that would be at our potential”. Santini recalled that in the Anglo-Saxon and Northern European countries, sports activity is considered an essential component of accompanying the studies while the Italian educational system saw sport as a waste of time in the study and, if anything, an alternative to it. “Sport, on the other hand, is a metaphor for competition, even with oneself, in going beyond always”. Rossi recalled his youthful experience of when the factory was open on Sunday morning, preventing him from going to play in the local football team, where he also did well and was respected. “Other times, like other times, were those in which I went to look around in New York, urged by my father and I found a market that launched our small family business to industry - he recalled with a hint of nostalgia - and in his spare time I divided myself between curiosity towards art (it is a collector of Andy Warrol among others) and those sports, like baseball and American football that we have little known “. Santini also let himself go to another interesting comparison: the competition that could / should be between science parks and between universities. “If students and businesses were comparable to fans who enjoy spectacular performances, we would watch fierce campaigns of the best teachers and researchers, perhaps foreigners, and who knows that this is not our future”. Rossi and Marinese have still compared the small and medium Italian companies, which with their inventiveness and good taste, often manage to compete on a par with the giant multinationals. However, both have agreed on the fugitive role of Italian banks and business support. Paolo Navarro asked all the speakers if a manager who brings amazing results can compare himself to a champion of the sport, obtaining a smile of assent and a clap of closing work. 

 

 

 

VI Panel: Sport & Estetica

VI Panel: Sport & Estetica - ATLANTIS

 

Sport & Aesthetics

 

Moderator: Filippo Caprioglio

 

The sixth panel of the day was moderated by Filippo Caprioglio, a Venetian architect who teaches at university both in Italy (Florence) and in the United States (New York). The protagonists are the architects Davide Cerini and Joseph Di Pasquale and the jewelery designer / designer Marzia Pendini.

 

Word immediately to Di Pasquale: In common usage the word aesthetic refers to the external appearance of things in synthesis to the beauty of what we see. It can also be understood as an aesthetic or beauty of an athletic gesture or a movement. In its more general aesthetic exception and that part of philosophy that researches how our knowledge of the world passes through the senses.

In other words, what meaning and value we give to reality according to what we perceive we see that we feel, closes Caprioglio. Many of those present were protagonists and actors in the development that had the aesthetics of sport up to the present day.

Cerini: And what awaits us in the future can only be limited by our capacity for imagination. Here we can see examples of the states and the most famous sports arenas of recent years. Where, in addition to the work of engineers, a large contribution was given by architects and artists. These sports temples that celebrate both sporting disciplines and their champions are presented as symbols of a country, of a society, as vehicles of value.

Think, for example, of the experience of a boy playing in a prefabricated box of the municipal gym, without space for spectators and with a terrible acoustics that makes every dribble and every shouting of the players bounce.

She is then transferred to another town where she finds a gym, maybe in wood, in a park, with colorful dressing rooms and in the field the stands for friends and family.

His perception of the world says that behind that apparently more expensive structure, there is an entire community that believes in the value of sport and that is why it invests and takes part in this activity.

It is the turn of Marzia Pendini. She represents an example of Italian and Venetian excellence in the world. Do not you be thrilled to know that a jewel created by her is worn by someone somewhere on earth and is a symbol of her creativity and at the same time her city? A creative idea is always an emotion. Of course, I am very proud to think that there are people who wear my jewelry because they are fascinated by the world that inspired it. The important thing is that to wear a jewel, there is no need to appear, or to show off wealth, but to be comfortable with yourself. Cerini: At the level of the single sportsman, today there is a world of technical and aesthetic research, both on new materials and on the body›s behavior during physical exertion in different environments. Normal or extreme. Beyond any possible discussion on the economic interests that can be behind this market, we can see that the communication of these values ​​is all positive. The effort costs fatigue and sacrifice and sometimes also involves pain, but communication is all about the positive emotions that arise from the process of improvement of themselves and their performance. Di Pasquale: When we talk about knowledge and experience through the senses, we must also consider that some of us do not have all the senses. And therefore it can not make a specific experience. This girl, for example, is deaf. The suit that you wear incorporates a series of circuits that reproduce the music through subtle vibrations in contact with the skin and the muscles. Again, the effort of those who designed this suit, and to transmit a positive intrinsic value with an accurate aesthetic. There are then on the market a series of gadgets and sensors that, at first glance, may appear as superfluous instruments in the hands of superficial fanatics. But let›s see why these gadgets are successful. Caprioglio: How is a jewel born? Pendini: From the idea we pass we move on to the drawing which is then computerized to obtain an exact measurement. A resin prototype is created which can be modified manually. Then we move on to production that takes place in our Salvadori V370 laboratory, our brand. Initially, few pieces are made. Indeed, if the stones are important, the jewel is modeled on the stone. Cerini: In terms of aesthetics, or of knowledge through the senses, these tools are like adding internal senses to our body. Temperature, heartbeat, calories consumed, distances traveled, speed and acceleration. It is our curiosity to know more that drives us towards these tools. Di Pasquale: We then have a sense of belonging to a tribe. The colors of our sporting faith. In this case, pure graphics, applied to clothing and sports equipment, emphasizes the sense of belonging to a group. Cerini: The aspect that struck me most in preparing this intervention was the change in the general attitude towards the physical handicap. Beyond the results and emotions that our champions have given us during the para Olympics. When today we see a person who lives thanks to futuristic prosthesis, our senses no longer say that that person has something less. But something more. And this, from the psychological point of view, completely changes the perception of the other, and of ourselves if we are the users of such prostheses. Di Pasquale: The technology is also able to make interesting new sports less known, as in this case cricket, thanks to sensors that help us to learn what are the right movements to be taken with the specific equipment of this sport. Cerini: Finally there is a whole world of new experiences that we can do thanks to appropriate stimulation of our senses. An equipment that keeps our body suspended and a virtual reality viewer can simulate the physical and visual sensation of flying, and increase our body›s ability to coordinate our bodies. And then there is the whole community world. The irresistible desire of the human being to let others know what they do and to share their experiences and emotions. A fortiori if they are positive as the improvement of their performance. Caprioglio finishes the panel with Pendini: What does he ask for his work? Turning work into passion is the maximum expression of freedom. 

 

VII Panel: Sport & Diritto

VII Panel: Sport & Diritto - ATLANTIS

  

The Right to Sport

 

Moderator: Luigi Fadalti

 

“Sport is an undeniable right for all individuals,” said Juventus sports doctor Claudio Rigo. The subject of doping was also addressed. Particularly significant was the testimony of a doctor but also of an athlete brought by Dr. Maurizio D’Aquino who highlighted how doping substances in an increasingly globalized world are now within reach of everyone. The Internet allows many kids to access different substances. This is how they arrive at results in a short time without going through training and practice. “I train at the gym with much younger classmates. People who in three months would like to achieve results that I obtained after years of training in the gym even for four times a week”, explained D’Aquino. We must teach that sport is prevention, sport is health, not just a means of getting a physical form to show on the beach. Dramatically I have to say that there is still much to do from this point of view. We are facing a seated youth. With bad habits. Analysis done on some young people from the Veneto region shows that 30% are overweight, that 30% of them consume only a portion of fruit or vegetables during the day”, concluded D’Aquino. Angelo Genova. “The doctor must be closer to the patient, he must know how to listen. According to some statistics, only eight seconds are devoted to listening to people. Eight seconds because we already have what we want to do “. Instead the patient must be listened to; the patient must be followed “concluded Genoa. The Monastier Nursing Home is 4th in Italy for orthopedic prostheses. A result achieved to meet the needs of an increasingly sporty and even older population. A result also arrived thanks to the foresight “sport” of its CEO Gabriele Geretto. “When I arrived in Monastier in 1972 I was a simple accountant. I was at the end of my simple and modest sports career and I certainly could not influence the entrepreneurial choices of the property”, said Geretto. “I was a young expert but I was well aware of the injuries that happened in the field having played for so many years. At the time there were often important phalluses, which are now sanctioned with expulsion. Fouls that caused heavy injuries. When I arrived here, I had in mind my project, AN ORTHOPEDIC STRUCTURE FOR SPORTS. That’s how when I became CEO in 1998 I made some choices aimed at creating a reference point for athletes too “Geretto said. “I was lucky enough to meet a doctor, Dr. Fattori orthopedic of Udine who worked on the knee, ligaments and meniscus. The “Gervasutta” with an orthopedic address was emerging from a health facility in Friuli. There, there were sanitary facilities with large capacity that were then sent to the various hospitals in the Region. He came to see me one day and asked me to do a test to compare public and private activities. After a month he told me that he would come to Monastier. This marked the beginning of the success of orthopedics. Other health workers arrived from Friuli. Among them also Dr. Genova. They combined their skills and created a group of very good professionals. Today the structure is equipped with 35 medical specialists n orthopedics. But not only. To reach today’s success, these professionals have been joined by technology, now very important. This is how, with the help of these health professionals, we have set up an important diagnostic section for the orthopedist. Currently we operate with robots in the abdominal and urological field. We operate in the present but guardian of the future. Soon we will equip ourselves with a robot designed specifically for orthopedics and we will become one of the few facilities in Italy to use tools of this kind that are very important for surgical precision. A group of specialists who helped to place our Healthcare Facility in 4th place in the Italian classification for orthopedic prostheses”. 

 

VIII Panel: Sport & Integrazione

VIII Panel: Sport & Integrazione - ATLANTIS

 

Sport & integration

 

Moderator: Nelly Pellin

 

The last part of the evening was dedicated to “Sport and integration”. Sport as an important element of sharing, which helps to grow and overcome the many difficulties of life. An example was the women of the “Trefoil Rose” Lilt of Mestre. Women who have been fighting cancer for so long and thanks to the team have managed to overcome difficult times together. They are an example of how sport, which represents union and sharing, serves to take back one’s own life. These women after the illness and the interventions started to paddle. They meet twice a week at the Canottieri Mestre in San Giuliano for training sessions that are very important to recover the use of the upper limbs after axillary emptying due to breast surgery. During their intervention they told their experiences. Like President Manuela Pieretto, who became ill with breast cancer in November 2012. “In January 2013 I had my first surgery,” said Manuela. “My first challenge was to drive out what I called the intruder: cancer”. Many other interventions followed and now I’m fine. I consider myself very lucky and I am very satisfied with the goals that I have achieved in these 4 years. The disease strengthens you, to the point of making you think again about what you thought impossible; to the point of no longer recognizing yourself, that you did not think capable of so much. And so my determination came out. Or the other pink woman of “Pink Clover” Captain Ivonne Chiarin. “Having known the Clover Rose friends, not only helps me physically. With them I do not feel alone. They understand my apprehension. When approaching the time of the checks I feel them close. I do not have to pretend with them; while sometimes, with family members you do it, maybe not to worry them. With them I am always myself “said Ivonne. Their intervention was anticipated by the screening of the video that saw them starring in Venice last September at the world of Dragon boat. An event that the Monastier Nursing Home, through its CEO Gabriele Geretto, wanted to support through the sponsorship of the team. Together with the team of Pink Butterfly in Rome, in the first competition, on the boat with 20 seats, they managed to cross the finish line first obtaining the gold medal. Significant was the moment when they told of being on the highest podium for the award ceremony and all together they sang the anthem of Mameli that for technical problems the organization was not able to duplicate. Tiziana Zennaro, Cristina Piroddi, Larisa Grozman, Fiorella Ferialdi, Daniela Galletta, Valeria Paolin, Michela Piasentini and Bruna Beghi are also part of the “Trifoglio Rosa” team. There are also the new entries Mariolina, Cristiana, Rossana and Sabrina. The PDM, the “Polisportiva Disabili della Marca Trevigiana”, also participated in the evening. The team, also supported by the “Monastier Nursing Home”, plays basketball and is composed of 15 disabled athletes (Roberto, Casagrande, Mattia Marcuzzo, Gianluca Cappellazzo, Vickson Ezeanyim, Massimo Girardello, Marco Dal Fitto, Rocco Iannelli, Stefano Alba, Stefano Franchin, Valerio Dal Ben, Gelu Vrabie, Veli Toska, Dario Benedetti) as well as Mirco Bolzonello, Fabio Santinon, Eros Mazzon, Alberto Pozzobon and Vincenzo Liguori who found a very important element of aggregation in sport. Their workouts are held weekly in the gym of Sant’Antonino in Treviso. The charge they transmit every time they play basketball is something contagious. They do not stop at nothing. Every single game action emanates an energy that has nothing to envy to the able-bodied basketball teams. “Before the accident that forced me to the wheelchair,” said PDM president Paolo Barbisan, “I did not practice any kind of sport. Then I started to get involved. First with the shooting range, also obtaining 2 gold and one silver medals in Finland in 1995 at the European Championships and after several experiences including the Paralympics of Atlanta 1996 and Sydney 2000, I finished my racing career at the World Championships in Seoul (Korea) in 2002 with a bronze. At the same time in the wheelchair basketball first as an athlete and now as a manager, driver chaperone “. He told about his gaming experience also Vickson Ezeanyim athlete born in Rome in 1990 from Nigerian parents who lives in San Donà di Piave and after a serious illness has undergone a complete amputation of a leg. He never lost heart and at the same time to the studies concluded with the degree began to practice wheelchair basketball first with PDM, then during the university period in Padua and then return again with the Polisportiva Disabili della Marca di Treviso.

Sport in any place is practiced something special. Especially for young people from Sierra Leone who are amputated, in their arms and legs, following the so-called diamond war. Thanks to a project of the Around Us Onlus association of Monastier, many guys who would be precluded any type of physical activity, they managed to team up. They got involved to win during football matches but also to win in life. Particularly touching was the video that was projected during the evening and that sees these young people playing football with crutches in a field, provisionally set up in a barren land in Sierra Leone. The joy of shooting on the net, of scoring, the enthusiasm to rejoice with the teammates. An incredible force that has managed to emerge thanks to the sports rehabilitation project of Around Us Onlus. For many years now, many doctors have spent twice a year spending their holidays in the African country to help these young people and especially the orphans of the Ebola epidemic. “It is important to help them in their country” said Vice President Emanuela Calvani attending the evening. “Sport in this case helps them to make them feel alive, participants in social and community life. Sport provides them with the enthusiasm to continue designing a different future. A dignified and hopeful future” . 

 

Giorgio Mazzanti & Ercole Olgeni Awards

Giorgio Mazzanti & Ercole Olgeni Awards - ATLANTIS

 

To the journalist Marco Bellinazzo of Il Sole 24 Ore the Giorgio Mazzanti Award

and to the Udinese Luigi Del Neri coach the Ercole Olgeni Prize awarded 

by the National Union of Sport Veterans

 

It is the journalist Marco Bellinazzo of the economic daily Il Sole 24, a regular collaborator of Tuttu Convocati, broadcast of the first afternoon of Radio 24 and author of the successful book The True Padrini del Calcio, winner of the first edition of the «Giorgio Mazzanti» Prize. ‹Udinese Calcio Luigi Del Neri coach the winner of the «Ercole Olgeni» Prize, awarded today by the National Union of Sports Veterans of Venice, during the Focus Sport and Globalization that took place in Monastier (Treviso) in the Antonio Calvani hall of the Villa delle Magnolie Service Center. The award - supported by Sogedin Spa and the regional Veneto and national level of Unvs - is a sculpture by the Venetian master Giorgio Bortoli based on an original stone from the San Marco bell tower collapsed in 1904 on which five rings are chained to symbolize the Olympic circles. The awards are named after Dr. Giorgio Mazzanti, a surgeon active for years in the structure of the Nursing Home, friend of the founder Antonio Calvani and sports doctor and Ercole Olgeni, Venetian, who was a singer of the Bucintoro Company of Venice, gold medal in two with Canottaggio at the Olympic Games in Antwerp 1920 and silver in Paris 1924. The Unvs section of Venice is named after him.

 

 

Travel tips for Italians

Travel tips for Italians - ATLANTIS

Travel tips for Italians

Before leaving for abroad

• Know

• Inform

• Make

 

Inform yourself

The www.viaggiaresicuri.it site, edited by the Crisis Unit of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation in collaboration with ACI, provides information as current as possible on all countries of the world.

In the country’s page where you plan to go in the foreground A NOTICE PARTICULAR with an update on the current situation, in particular on specific security issues, weather, epidemics, etc.

Besides the Notice Particular is available the FACT SHEET, which provides updated information about the country in general, with instructions for safety, health outcomes, indications for economic operators, traffic and useful addresses.

Remember to also check www.viaggiaresicuri.it shortly before your departure because security situations of foreign and regulations and administrative measures countries can change rapidly: is data that we continually upgrade.

You can acquire the information through daily active Crisis Telefonica Operative Central Unit (with voice timetable night service):

• Italy 06-491115

• from abroad + 39-06-491115

 

Inform

Before leaving, you can also record your trip on www.dovesiamonelmondo.it site stating your general, the itinerary of the trip and a mobile phone number. By recording the trip, the estimate will more accurately Crisis Unit the number of Italians in crisis areas, identify the identity and schedule servicing when sopraggiunga a severe emergency situation.

All the data are automatically deleted two days after your return, and are used only in case of emergency to facilitate action by the Crisis Unit in case of need.

As well as via the Internet, you can also register with your mobile phone by sending an SMS with a question mark? or with the word HELP to the number 320 2043424, or by phone at 011-2219018 and following the instructions.

 

Make

I strongly encourage anyone who is about to travel abroad temporarily, in their own interest, to obtain the European Health Insurance Card (EHIC), for travel to EU countries, or, for travel outside the EU, a ‘health insurance with adequate ceiling, to cover not only the cost of medical care and treatment carried out at hospitals and health facilities, but also the possible plane transfer to another country or repatriation of the sick, in severe cases even for means of aero-ambulance.

In case of organized tourist trips, we suggest you carefully check the contents of health insurance included in travel packages and, in the absence of adequate safeguards, we strongly recommend taking out individual health insurance policies.

And ‘well known that in many countries the local medical and health standards are different from those in Europe, and often private facilities have very high costs for each type of assistance, care or benefit provided. In recent years, the Directorate General for Italians Abroad and Migration Policies (DGIT) has seen the rise of reported cases of Italians in difficult situations abroad for medical and health reasons.

Remember that the diplomatic-consular missions, while providing the necessary assistance, can not sustain nor grant direct payments to a private nature; only in the most serious and urgent cases, they may grant to nationals not residing in the consular district and who find themselves in situations of hardship loans with restitution promise, which must, however, be repaid to the State upon return to Italy.

To obtain general information on assistance healthcare abroad, please refer to the website of the Ministry of Health, particularly noting “If I start service to ...” that allows you to have information on the right or not to health care during a stay or residence in any country of the world. 

 

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